Tuesday, April 30, 2019

Leadership traits behaviors and styles Assignment

Leadership traits behaviors and styles - fitting ExampleHowever, of significance to the study is Marchionnes tenure as CEO of Chrysler, an automobile connection ground in the United States. Marchionne took over as CEO in 2009 replacing Robert Nardelli, at a era when Chrysler faced huge financial constraints. The fact that he had turned Fiat, an Italian based automobile company into a profitable organization, made him the ideal candidate for the job. Marchionne managed to repay Chryslers loans to the government six days in advance and re-built Chrysler as a profitable automobile empire within a rattling short time (Wernle, 2010). Explored in this essay includes Marchionnes leadership and personality traits, behavior orientation, and leadership style.The pentad Factor Model (FFM) outlines five personality symmetrys, which include Neurotism, Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, Extraversion and Openness (OCEAN). Within each dimension are primary factors, which describe in detail in dividual qualities. Personality psychologists such as Eynseck vulgarize that an individuals personality encompasses a combination of both dispositional and situational factors. Dispositional factors account for internal factors such as temperance and cognitive and genetic predispositions among others. Conversely, situational factors account for external factors predisposed by the environment such as media, family and peers among others. The analysis of personality dimensions proposed by the FFM enables one to analyze an individual in a holistic look without the overlapping of qualities, which are specific to each dimension. As such, a person either falls on one end of the high-low continuum of each dimension.Sergio Marchionne is high in conscientiousness, low in neuroticism, high in bleakness to experience, moderate in extraversion, and low in agreeableness. Conscientiousness encompasses an individuals inclination towards being voluminous and dependable. As a CEO,

Monday, April 29, 2019

Mobile Payment Processing Systems and Analytics Research Paper

Mobile Payment Processing Systems and Analytics - query Paper ExampleThese standards provide the retailers and other merchants with a clear guidance on the payment process. Kaletunc (45) asserts that this manakin of payment is very complex hence, it is plausible for an entity to indulge in it when this technology is inevitably required. In addition, at that place are risks associated with the interlinking of placard payments through wandering devices. The Mobile payment touch entails the apply of accredit cards on the mobile devices to effect payments with regard to various melody transactions. Poor and Lang (37) posit that in this form of payment impact, any consumer handheld devices like the tablets and iPads layabout be used to effect payments. These devices can only act as mobile payment bear upon devices when they get text data clearly. In fact, the consumers have the choice of providing their own mobile devices to effect payment. This has created efficiency and eff ectiveness in the payment bear on due to the fact that the consumer traffic is eliminated and there is personal responsibility in case of any blockage in the payment processing. However, the scenario of the consumer bringing his own device for payment processing at the merchant business location has got its challenges. For instance, the merchant cannot manage to take control of the configuration of the client device. This compromises the retailers helper delivery and it can culminate in craftiness and fraud among clients. The payment card industry data security standards help in guiding the payment processes when the merchant has his own mobile device to serve customers. The standards ought to be complied with in order to avoid any inconvenience and probable fraud in the line of business of effecting of payment processing. This implies that the standards do not cover any eventuality pertaining to the mobile device ownership by the customers. In this regard, merchants must be ver y cautious and diligent while affecting the payment processing .This entails analyzing the payment processes and verifying identity of various cards presented by the clients. The point of sale payment processing is the only scenario which applies with regard to the payment card industry data security standards. Sparck and Galliers (28) claim that squares mobile card reader technology is covered by the data security standards. The application of the mobile payment processing technology can only be successful when there is transaction security, application security and the mobile device security. in that respect must be prevention of the customer study data from interception during the processing of payment. There must be prevention of data from interception while it is being transmitted from the mobile payment device. This is commonly ensured through the use of strong encryption codes for the effecting of payment transactions. The merchants usually protect the customers account da ta through limitation of physical access to the device during transacting time. In fact, this is affected through the use of one-on-one service delivery at the point-of-sale (MobileReference, 37). This technological application should be protected from viruses, which enter the customer payment data. For instance, the creation of malware, spams, Trojan and recycler computer viruses have led to massive destruction of snappy documents online. This has also resulted in a total breakdown of some systems where no backup of documents

Sunday, April 28, 2019

The effect of terrorism on the global economy Essay

The effect of terrorism on the global economy - Essay Exampleand all of the countries it trades with. The federal official government, in what some might term a knee-jerk reaction to the attack, spent unprecedented amounts of money on questionable programs and ventures in an effort to provide security to its citizens. The President has requested a significant profit in security-related programs in the context of the budget for 2003. Additional spending of $48 cardinal was proposed for national defense lawyers (an increase of 14 percent from the previous year). In addition, the President asked Congress for an appropriation of $38 billion for homeland security, compared to $20 billion spent in 2001 (Looney, 2002). The combination of a stunned economy, a flat-line emersion in the job market and dwindling government resources made its affects known worldwide. This paper will encounter how the events of 9/11 influenced galore(postnominal) aspects of the U.S. economy and examples of its global consequences.The U.S. was enjoying a period of vigorous economic magnification during the second Clinton administration, a period that saw the nations first budget surpluses in 40 years. This growth was fueled largely because of a general assurance in the nations economic health and an increase in workers productivity. This time of prosperity was over by the last mentioned part of the year 2000 as the trend in business appeared to reflect a lessening confidence in the direction of the national economy. Corporations, especially those in the technical industries, began systematically downsizing, outsourcing and employing other means of economizing because of wet revenue losses.The economy had shown signs of weakening the entire year of 1999, and by the end of 2000, the manufacturing segment was also steadily shrinking as was evidenced by the lack of equipment orders, profits and number of employees. This trend was experienced many other industries

Saturday, April 27, 2019

Flannery o'conner's - any topic use of faith violence or compare two Essay

Flannery oconners - any topic use of faith violence or compare two stories - Essay ExampleThis daughter, and subsequently the rest of her family, is eventually taken advantage of by a muscae volitantes of some kind that enters the familys world for a brief period. Despite this similarity, particularly in the characters of Hulga Hopewell and Lucynell crater (the younger), the two somehow defective and unmarried daughters, OConnor manages to convey widely different messages. By equivalence the two daughters within these stories and their unique experiences, as they measure up against known trademarks of OConnors piece style, it is possible to find OConnors general worldview regarding the nature of evil in the world plainly also her hope that there might still be some advantageously left in it as well. It is in contrasting these characters that one begins to understand OConnors ideas of the loss of innocence and what makes a person defective.In Good Country People, a small househ old of women gets a visit from a young door-to-door Bible salesman. One of these women is Hulga Hopewell, who is 32 years old and feels herself ugly beyond belief. Although she has take in a Ph.D. in philosophy, she must wear a false leg because her natural leg had been changeful off in an accident when she was a child. She finds no inner value in her ability to look at and can only judge herself by her outward appearance, purposely suiting her inner character in every way she can devise to match with this outer perception. While her mother invites the salesman in and considers him good ground people like she is, meaning they share many of the same morals, values and ethics, Hulga does not mean in anything so prosaic. As a means of acting out against this ideal of the good country people, Hulga determines to seduce this young man as soon as he shows the slightest interest in her. She reasons if she can seduce something as good, pure and sweet as the man her mother chooses to se e, the epitome of

Friday, April 26, 2019

Business Plan Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 5000 words

lineage Plan - Essay ExampleThe Competition 8 6.1 Key Competitors 8 6.2 Competitive Analysis drum Analysis 8 7. Commercialisation Plan 10 7.1 Overall Business Strategies 10 7.2 Sales dodging 10 7.3 Key Marketing Strategy 10 8. Management 11 8.1 The current team and their roles 11 9. Financial Projections 12 9.2 Sources of finance 12 9.3 Profit & Loss Statement 13 9.4 Cash ladder Statement 15 REFLECTIVE LEARNING 16 calendar week 1 16 Week 2 17 Week 3 18 Week 4 19 Week 5 19 Week 6 20 Week 7 21 Week 8 22 Week 9 23 Week 10 23 REFERENCES 25 1. Executive Summary The aim of this cable plan is to produce a comprehensive report on creating a football game faces committee that becomes a major attraction for all the football fans on the various campuses such as (Add names of the campuses), providing spirit equipment as tumesce as an unparalleled experience for the participants. The aim is to steadily build it into a task that allow not only cater to the football fan base but will to a fault incorporate other activities which might interest our consumers into the sports events later on. Through the extensive research explained later during this report, it tail be forecasted that this business will grow over time and help us generate a fan base of sports enthusiasts. The customer base of the business at the start will be the football fanatics at the school, and as the committee starts to gain popularity, the customer base will increase to intromit the basketball, tennis and all the other sports fans as well as a secondary target securities industry, which will include the participants as well as the spectators who enjoy watching sports. This segmentation has been formed after conducting a market research by the use of questionnaires. By gaining sponsorship from various interested organizations to provide fiscal backing as well as collaborating with Action for Southern Africa (ACTSA), the events will be marketed creatively to provide the businesss customers wi th a complete package which gives them value for money. 2. Objectives For Year 1, the objectives include creating introductory awargonness of the football hostelry by putting up posters at various strategic as well as germane(predicate) locations where they can be made accessible to the target audience. Also, recognition can also be generated by raillery of mouth, or the favourable opinion by the customers of the business. This could be by means of Facebook could prove to be a vital tool in this regard as it can help spread out the word to the target market that cannot be reached otherwise by employing the other market tactics (Muske, Stanforth and Woods, 2010). According to the forecasts made, which will be mentioned in the financial part, the sales projections of the ACTSA wrist bands as well as badges is estimated to be 25 each, whereas participants per events is proposed to be 80, leaving the business with a minimum summarize revenue of ?300 per event. The profit per event is estimated to be ? 300. The request for sponsoring the sports events has been responded by Student union as well as Aqua bankrupt so far. By Year 2, the football club is likely to be substantially established through the employment of the advertising techniques mentioned above. A website could now be created in order to gain popularity as well as to give vital information about the business to the customers. Again, according to the forecasts made in the financial part of the business plan, we can estimate that the sales of the ACTSA wrist bands as well as the badges are projected to reach 200 each, while the participants per event will increase to around 150 per event. The total revenue per event will increase to a minimum of ?1000, while the profit generated per event is anticipate to be ?600. The sponsors likely to endorse the football club

Thursday, April 25, 2019

Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words - 24

Management - Essay practice sessionSuch demonstration has been in expression as a shift from transactional to strategic leadinghip.Good leaders have a heap. This is an aspiration as visualized in the leaders overall plans pursuance to create measurable changes in the organization. As revealed by Price (2008), leaders who have a vision atomic number 18 demonstrated to be more advantageful at guiding their followers to achieving their goals with an example of Richard Branson at the helm of Virgin Airlines, and the late Steve Jobs of Apple Inc. The force is hinged upon the leaders ability to constantly analyse the groups development and his vision. This activity reduces deviation from achiever and diminishes the chances of failure. Primarily, they care for other peoples wellbeing, appreciating that anything done by his followers leaves a facelift mark. Therefore, his role is to dig out the best of the ability from the followers, ensuring that each member is successful. He does not have even an ounce of jealously from the success of his counterparts, solely goes a step further to support them.Good leaders are also passionate. This means they are driven to do whatever they are engaged in and achieve the highest levels of success. A passionate leader concentrates most of his energies and attention to all the processes that will guarantee the organization, or group to achieves its set objectives. With such leaders, the chances of success for a set project are elevated since they also identify points of redundancy and deviation and go down them out. In addition, such leaders are able to ensure sustained positive results once success is achieved. A good example of a passionate leader whose concentrated energy has led to feat of success is Microsoft founder and head, Bill Gates.Furthermore, they are great team builders. This trait is essential in managing the alliance of talent, objectives, and resources which is essentially, what leaders oversee. The abilit y to oversee a group of people,

Wednesday, April 24, 2019

Dietary Guidelines Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Dietary Guidelines - Assignment ExampleA fit remains and a healthy diet are the building blocks of a healthy life. If the body is healthy, its direct tinge is positive on your mind .Also our body deserves the best timely nourishment in order to require optimum output. Keeping a track of your fitness level helps you to understand your physical requirements and lead a healthy life.I am a 24 years old male living in an apartment all by myself. I have to ready my own food but dont cook on a regular basis due to my lifestyle and mostly eat out. I execute lawn tennis (State Player) and train with ATP professionals .I exercise in a Gym all by myself as I dont have any personal fitness trainer. My more focus while exercising is on the upper body and therefore my lower body is weaker than the upper body. Whenever I do weights the lactic savage produced in the muscles decreases the tractableness of body muscles. I spend 3 days a week for Tennis and Gym and occasionally enjoy swimming. I mostly drive and walking habit is almost paltry in my lifestyle.The above results show my sporting endeavor. I am of standard height and my BMI is normal. My Waist to coxa Ratio indicates that my body shape is in proportion to the body weight. My skin folds (percentage of Body fat) are somewhat high as compared to normal (higher than 14% in men). My body has a high capacity to maneuver oxygen to muscles for utilization and generation of energy as proven by VO2 Max test. My Sit and buy the farm Flexibility test gives a good score (Paul Roetert, Todd S. Ellen Becker, Page 19) my muscular resolution is good as proven by Push Up and Sit Up tests. The strength of my forearms is good and I am right handed person as the test results for right hand were higher than the left. My shoulder flexibility has a high variance when compared between right and left. Right arm shoulder flexibility is fine wherein the flexibility for Left Shoulder is below average. My Shoulder concentrate indi cates low shoulder muscle endurance unlike Bicep curl which is indeed a good weight. In my speed test, timing was good in 10m sprint (burnt 1174.5 calories) while I didnt score well in 20m sprint (2350 calories burnt).505 Agility test indicates that my mogul to change directions when required while running was not good at all. The result for Bench Press Test calculated in Per Body Weight (1.3414) was good. The evaluation of my lower body strength i.e. stage Press was Poor.24 hours Diet RecallDietary Assessment NutrientMy

Tuesday, April 23, 2019

Are shcwann cells useful for repairing spinal cord injuries Research Paper

atomic number 18 shcwann cells useful for repairing spinal cord injuries - Research Paper ExampleThe best cells for bridge-building argon Schwann cells, because they are abstemious to get from patients and because they support perfect axon regeneration (Oudega & Xu, 2006). The only problem is that Schwann cells will not intermingle with the connective tissue cells of the spinal cord, so the bridges will not integrate with the spinal cord. Studies are underway on how to Schwann cells interact with connective tisues cells of the spinal cord and how to get them integrate.Schwann cells are also the cells in peripheral typefaces that form myelin sheaths. They are not usually found in the superstar or spinal cord where another neurological cell, the ogliodendrocyte, is responsible for making myelin. Researchers have shown that Schwann cells grafted into the brain peck myelinate central axons (Oudega & Xu, 2006). When the loss of myelin is an important part of injury, implanting Schwa nn cells could stimulate remyelination and thereby restore function.Schwann cells, nerve cells and whatsoever other cells make proteins known to nourish nerve cells called growth factors. By introducing these factors into injury sites alone or in combination with grafts, researchers hope to stimulate additional nerve regeneration and promote the health of nerve cells. This approach has been shown to stimulate CNS regeneration, including growth of axons from nerve cells within the spinal cord and those from the brain that enthrall their long axons down the spinal cord. Significant restoration of function has not yet been achieved.Also Pieces of Engineered spooky Tissue (EngNT) are formed by controlling natural Schwann cell behavior in a three-dimensional collagen gel so that the cells elongate and align, and then a stabilization process removes excess politic to leave robust artificial tissues. These living biomaterials contain aligned Schwann cells in an aligned collagen environ ment, recreating key features of practice nerve tissue.Incorrect

Monday, April 22, 2019

Case study Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 25

Case study - Essay ExampleBased on sales, for each one identified product or service is defined by its purchasers. Since there diverse and ever changing nature of products available in the food market, the corporation makes supplies to different consumers specific entirelyy identified by the purchases made. Across demarcated market regions, some products will sell more than others, although the entire customer base is constituted by all market segments.The second variable is that of broadcasting. The corporation understands that not every market segment requires broadcasting products or services, and as such different customers view broadcasting from various perspectives, thereby constituting variant tastes and preferences. In this regard, Meredith evaluates its broadcasting options prior to the needs of different customers. The third variable relates to regional and kind diversity. Different physical regions and social differences create the need for identifiable markets to thes e factors. In all the three variables, data mining techniques are extremely employed to aid the segmentation process (Havaldar, 2010).The target marketing strategy employed by the Meredith throne is direct marketing. This involves addressing specific customer needs as they arise. The corporation embraced customer diversity and dynamism in its business. This makes it prioritize its customers needs, tastes and preferences. Customers interact directly with the corporation through the corporations websites. Through the same websites, their expectations on product development and improvement are collected and used for customer satisfaction purposes.Meredith has developed miscell whatsoever of products for the diverse customer base and market share that it enjoys. Building strong relationships with the right customer guarantees any business enterprise that its operations and performance over rivals are competent enough (Havaldar, 2010). For Meredith

Wedding Photography Survey Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Wedding Photography Survey - Essay Exampleactice of wedding photography has developed and grown ever since the development of the pictorial art form by Joseph Nicphore Nipce, in 1826 (Baatz 27). An primeval photograph, in fact, recorded a decade after this was the 1840 wedding ceremony of Prince Albert and Queen Victoria.The market for this exertion is individuals who look forward to getting married. The venture strictly takes place during the period of the wedding, but not needfully on the wedding day. The wedding photographers advertise themselves through various mediums such as television or mostly magazines (Baatz 45). A majority of photographers prefer to be paid prior to the service, but all expenses dope be refunded if the client is not pleased with the work. Some of the equipments needed are lenses, wide-angle zoom, wide-to-telephoto zoom, image-stabilized telephoto zoom, photographic camera body, flashes and accessories, light modifiers and a bag to hold it all among ot her items. A recent trend in the wedding photography field is the time of origin effect. Photographers are at once able to give pictures a vintage effect making the pictures appear as if they were from a different time period (the past) other than now (Baatz 98). Locations include the main wedding venue, parks (places with a lot of tress), as well as piddle sites. This depends with the preference of the couple.A survey carried out by the Photo District News (PDN), in 2009, confirm that little bookings with a 6.5% plunge in wedding photography were experienced with a few less hours per week on the venture in 2009 than in 2008 (PDN 1). Wedding photographers who provide a la identity card services have increased their costs by 1%. The photographers who provide packages have increased their prices by 3%. The most fascinating part of it is that half of the photographers added a much higher priced package in 2009, by 40+%, and they seem to be photographers who want their incomes to inc rease every year. Half of the photographers added lower-priced packages that

Sunday, April 21, 2019

Annotated Bibliography Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 9

Annotated Bibliography - Essay ExampleThe natural action and reaction observed in sex activity issues have made it necessary for both men and women to meet in designing and implementing policies that will suit the interests of either sex. In order to critically capture favorable action and the rise of women in a men-dominated world, it is essential to understand the root cause of gender issues and how antithetic people are dealing with it. This makes the reference book a rich resource in terms of the randomness it contains and its subsequent use in my research.The interconnectedness of different education disciplines has diversified the favorable action consider and the role of women in the society. The field of skill has not been left wing behind in the debate. For many years, cognition had been predominantly a field for men. Societies held that the field was relatively difficult for women to handle. However, women empowerment from time to time has left women equal or ev en better than men in science courses and professions.Policies that are empowering women in science are vital in the continuing affirmative action debate. Many studies continue to highlight womens potentials, abilities, and capabilities in science, and Balafoutas and Matthias have made their contribution in such studies. The information and policies presented in this source shows that affirmative action is not limited to any specific disciplines, making the source crucial in my study. The particular that the journal is published makes it a credible source.Beaman emphasizes on the need for exposure to both men and women. The source primarily concentrates on empowering women and reducing gender bias through exposure. The source highlights all the variables that define exposure, and to a fault presents the exact aspects that constitute gender bias. Measures that can be used to reduce or alleviate gender bias are outlined, thereby showing how men and women should relate in the light of affirmative action. The

Saturday, April 20, 2019

Arab and Israel Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Arab and Israel - Essay object lessonThey way Israel reacts to these challenges will affect how western world perceives it and may determine whether ataraxis in the fondness easternmost will ever be a reachable goal.Tensions in the region have been eminent for decades but the Arab uprisings in the spring of 2011 have given cause for heightened concerns for Israel. Many countries in the Middle East such Tunisia, Libya and Egypt have dethroned their leaders and replaced them by democratic process. Syria has been in turmoil for over a form with no end to the bloody conflict expected soon. Egypt was an American ally and has honored its 1979 peace agreement with Israel but what the election of Mohamed Morsi, a member of the Muslim Brotherhood, will mean to peace is uncertain. Some apprehension the uprisings may encourage groups such as Hezbollah to the north, Fatah on the west and Hamas to the south to inauguration up against what they identify as their oppressor, Israel. The com bination of recent and distant history may be putting the Israeli government on edge, so much so its possible they are overreacting to the in style(p) events in Gaza. Arabs will tell you Israel has been in the habit of overreacting for a long time and present gentle evidence in the form of body counts.It has been said that a two-state (Palestinian/Israeli) ancestor could have produced an enduring peace but no more. Israel has played the bully on the block for too long and no solution will likely ever be viable. A generation of Arabs, along with Persians in Iran and Muslims of all heathen backgrounds, has witnessed Israels encroachment on lands and suppression of Arabs. They have grown up hating Zionists, not necessarily Jews in Israel. Zionist means to support the Jewish state of Israel. The actions and vitriolic words of the war-hawkish Netanyahu have only furthered the Arab mistrust of Israel. He is opposed to a Palestinian state, continues to expand Israeli borders by autho rizing the building of

Friday, April 19, 2019

Developing service Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Developing serving - Assignment ExampleFocusing on this aspect, the report describes about how the confused features of go outhouse sire an impact on the design and delivery of the proposed services. Besides, the report besides analyses the proposed services on the basis of different service models and extended marketing mix strategies. The objective is thereby to look that various aspects which needs to be considered in designing and developing the services at Derby Museum. How Would the Features of work Affect the Design and Delivery of the Service and What Could Managers Do to Limit the Effects of These? The services provided by organisations are diverse in nature. They locoweed determine the performance of organisations. However, designing and delivering of services relies on the features of services provided by an organisation (Pride & Ferrell, 2012). Since services are not physical, they are termed as intangible. Services cannot be touched and hence evaluating the q uality of services becomes quite challenging to be measured. The other feature of services is its perishable nature. It denotes that dissimilar goods, services cannot be warehoused for future purposes. Therefore, this feature of services can also be detect to have a deep impact on the overall performance of organisation. To be precise, as services are not perishable, it is hard for organisations to balance its supply and demand. Variability is the other vital feature of services (Wild, 2007). It is also known by heterogeneity which denotes that services provided by organisations are dependent on great variance being delivered by individual entities. The behaviour of people is quite challenging to control as it has been observed to fluctuate on a regular basis. Aspects such as work pressure, experience, knowledge and skills among other factors can further lead to variability of the services. Inseparability is the fourth feature of services. The creation of services is often observ ed as related with the consumption, unlike products and goods where production and consumptions occur at separate instances (Wild, 2007). As a result, in parade to make intangible services more tangible for the guests, managers need to determine the way for effective service deliveries which can serve to create a high degree of confidence among customers about the value of services. The palpability of services arrives from profound personal interactions, clear communications and physical atmospheres where the business operates. Hence, maintaining a positive customer relationship, setting proper potentials and representing the organisation in acceptable manner by appropriate advent, approach and facilities can enhance the service quality for the proposed services of Derby museum (Fisk et al., 2008). Besides, managers of Derby museum can enhance customer contentment facilitating the involvement of consumers in the service delivery procedure. Regular communication with customers and frequent meetings can further help to establish assurance towards providing quality assured and customer convenient services. In order to enhance customer satisfaction towards the offered services, the managers of Derby museum can focus on recognising the degree of personalisation required

Thursday, April 18, 2019

Day in the ife of counselor, psychologist & social worker Essay

Day in the ife of pleader, psychologist & companionable worker - Essay ExampleThe paper allow also study the educational qualifications, licensure requirements, skills and techniques that master copys in these handle regularly incorporate into their practice.A counselor is a human service professional that assists people get more out of life by overcoming challenges and difficulty. A counselor is a trained and accredited professional who renders developmental, emotive and mental support to clients. Counselors build a healthy relationship with clients and formulate difficulty-solving approaches to resolve the problem facing a client. The counseling field is diverse with counselors specializing in rehabilitation, career assistance, mental health, or uniting (Price, 2015). Counselors can work privately, under the government, in academic circles or in medical facilities.A counselor has to fulfill a prerequisite for an Associate or Bachelors storey in extensive arts major. After completion of the Bachelors item, the counselor pursues a Masters degree in a counseling module. A counselor can undertake an advanced degree such as a doctorate in a specialty subject. A Bachelors degree is an essential requirement for basic counseling and life coaching. The Bachelors degree introduces the counselor to a wide range of counseling fields from which they can choose a field that suits their career objectives. good counseling fields such as psychoanalysis require a doctorate or PhD qualification. A degree in psychology is a beneficial addition to the educational qualifications of a counselor (Gladding, 2012).Counselors will also undergo specialty training in the organizations that provide counseling services. Counseling training programs held in developing counseling skills and offers mentoring for more experienced counselors. Counselors undertake practicums that equip them with knowledge about treatment modalities (Price, 2015). During the training, the

Wednesday, April 17, 2019

Franklin Park Zoos Valentine Celebration Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Franklin Park Zoos Valentine Celebration - Essay exerciseThe park will be crowning this years Zoo Sweetheart 2010 base on who among the animals receives the most valentines. A winner will also get a run into to go in a behind-the-scenes tour of the Zoo with the whole family. Catching Joy would feature a chicane hands-on table where children could create their own valentine artworks on two Saturdays, February 13 and 20, inside the tropical set from 100p.m.-4 00 p.m. Zookeepers would also join in through various activities and encounters where people would get a chance to chat with them and answer questions. Make sure to bring your thinking cap and try to stomp them with questions regarding your favorite animals. Get to know more about the animals habitat, trivia and meet the zoos favorite residents up close and personal. Daily activities within the week include a valentine dating activity for the animals at the tropical Forest which starts from 1000 a.m. till 400 p.m. From 1100 a .m. learn more about the interesting instruction on one of the most romantic creatures at Birds World Building. Daily bosh time starts at 1130 a.m. at the Hippo Theater situated inside Tropical Forest. Afterwards, raise your awareness regarding wildlife and the proper conservation of the earth by seeping in all the companionship at the biofacts area. This is designed to raise consciousness not only among children but with adults as well. While at it, visit the ring-tailed lemur exhibit nearby. The gorillas, one of the most beloved primates are also featured from 200 p.m. with a zookeeper for an encounter at the Gorilla Exhibit. A zookeeper would also talk about the animals that call Franklin levy home at 300 p.m. Think out of the box (or out of the restaurant) and take your date and the holy family to the Zoo. The weeks activities would surely grab the attention of everyone regardless of the age.

Tuesday, April 16, 2019

African American and Conflicting Perspective Essay Example for Free

Afri croupe American and Conflicting Perspective leavenEvery individual has a linear horizon on things in life and their private idea of the truth. These are universal concepts and are widely seen in ted Hughes verse forms birthday Letters. Birthday letters is a fructify of poetrys, said to have been written by Hughes for six years prior to his death, on his ex married womans birthday each year this the selection of poems being called birthday letters. The selection on poems surrounds his knobbed marital issues between himself and his wife Sylvia Plath. It is besides to show the contradictory perspective on their relationship. This is mainly towards the admonition he received all those years after her felo-de-se.He had been blamed for being the catalyst for her suicide/death and so began a collection of poems regarding their relationship but in some way, excusing himself and explaining that she was already on a destructive path. Through two of his poems, Fulbright sc holars and the shot, an understanding of the poems have thrown lighten the concepts of conflicting perspectives. dickens other complementary texts such as letters from two jima and to kill a mockingbird amaze conflicting perspectives however on issues such as racial discrimination and the perspectives of an opposing country that has been mark as enemies.Fulbright scholars are the first poem in the birthday letters collection. Hughes hither tries to remember how he met her and first know of her existence. He does this whilst looking at a picture that was taken at university, when he was a naive small man. He ponders about her throughout the poem trying hard to tump over into his psyche hopelessly to recollect something about her when they met at a party. This can be noted by the quote were you among them? which refers to the picture of Fulbright scholar.In terms of conflicting perspectives, the e poem can also be seen as a text that he wrote implicating how difficult it is t re call that first meeting, however he begins to explain his perspective of Sylvia Plath. He says your exaggerated American grin for the cameras which referred to her as some wholeness with false appearances. The different techniques Hughes used to convey his ideas were the use of rhetorical questions such as were you among them? , the repetitions of the word maybe and the use of the I individuala, and metaphors such as the first fresh peach.Rhetorical questions he used as a means of asking himself how he met her and what she first looked like to him. The metaphor delicious peach can be said to be another way to say she was the first girl he ever tasted, in terms of the experience of truly liking someone who seemed special to him. Reputation is used throughout the poem of maybe can be analyzed as a way of trying to remember what he precept of her and his knowing of her existence. The I persona is an important tool in terms of Hughes alluding to the very personal nature of his reflec tion.The poem the shot is also one from the collection and conveys Plath as someone different to what her fans saw her to be. As he says that she was deceitful in terms of appearance of a good and decent person/poet. In the poem, the shot is a metaphor of Plath being bullet shout out a gun. It can also e sad that Hughes thinks that he was the one shot. Hughes perspective on paths destructive path is one that she has always been on, saying that she was already a bullet long forwards she has met him.Followers of Plath as a victim view him as a catalyst for her suicide but in the poem he tries to explain that she was already suicidal as she tried to commit suicide when she was younger. The use of word dada is one of great importance as it refers to her childish attachment to her father. This is also the title of her famous poem daddy. Hughes also explains that from his perspective, that he himself has become the father figure that she had ways been looking for. Overall, the concept o f the two poems register conflicting perspectives through analysis of ted Hughes birthday letters.The text letters from Iwo jima is similarly to birthday letters, a conflicting perspective however of the Japanese however of the Japanese soldiers during the American invasion of to two jima in ww2. It depicts their perspective throughout the turbulent time, showing that even were still human beings with the same universal feelings. Clint eastwood tell the film letters from Iwo Jima in 2006, trying to show an American or non Japanese auditory modality their side of the story or their perspective. Here, a conflicting perspective is shown.Throughout the film, eastwood wants us to empathise with the Japanese perspective f the same terror and emotions that the Americans felt at that time too. The main character is a young Japanese soldier called saigo who is little enthused on fighting and going to war. This is all seen through techniques eastwood excitant such as flashbacks- which wer e important in the film. The audience is then able to see how the soldiers were like before the war and what it was like for them when they got conscripted. Their reflections are a huge part in their conflicting perspective and also a great important technique is the Japanese language.Eastwood used the language to give a fond sense of ethnicity and strong sense of tradition. To kill a mocking bird written by harpist lee in 1960 conveys the conflicting perspectives of the treatment of African Americans in Alabama. This conflicting perspective is seen through the eye of a young white girl, rather than n African American person. The text shows her view o the racial discrimination against the Negroes and the treatment, prejudice and violence they receive. The event takes place thats how a conflicting perspective is the court case scene, where an African American man is accused of raping a young white girl.The perspective here is not only through the girl, Scout Finch, but also her fat her Atticus finch which is the attorney defending the accused. However he took on a case he know that with all the racial discrimination and prejudice around, he would inevitable lose. The fact that he took on the case shows a conflicting perspective of a white American man who has no prejudice against African Americans. The daughter vigil finch views the situation on a different level as well as she was basically embossed by African American woman and didnt judge her, as many batch did in Maycomb County.She begins to see and understand the prejudice and discrimination when the man is accused of rape as the majority people did not like his race at that time. It was seen as stereotypical to blame him for the rape. The conflicting perspective here is that the perspective o a young white American and her family on the treatment the Negroes received. It can be said that harper lee wanted the audience to challenge their beliefs and see events from the perspective of a young child who is horrified by the treatment of the Negroes.

Police Administration Essay Example for Free

practice of practice of law Administration EssaySince the early part of the twentieth century, donnishians and reprehensible legal expert practitioners have debated whether jurisprudence force incumbents should be involve to have a college tuition as a minimum qualification to be hired. Today, in that location is general agreement that a college education will not necessarily make a mortal a good law officer, but a good legal philosophy officer basis be made repair by having one. Many police executives believe formal college education can improve critical idea skills of officers and that is becoming a more(prenominal) important factor as the complexity of police work continues to increase. 1 According to a recent article in Police Chief clip We expect (police officers) to understand and apply the law evenly. We expect them to grasp the nature of social problems and the psychology of multitude with different attitudes toward the law. We expect officers to overl ordly and efficaciously handle disputes involving people from varying cultural, racial and socioeconomic backgrounds.2 The importance of possessing a college degree by police officers seems to have substantial support in the literature. If the want or desire is established for the possession of a college degree by police officers, then how do they get one? Traditionally, a college plan involved students attending classes at a brick and mortar campus. This was delicate for many officers that already had substantial work and family commitments. With the advent of online (internet delivered) college programs, it is possible for officers to enter or return to college and affiance a degree where previously it may not have been practical for them to do so. With that be said, does an online program sufficiently address the desirable attributes for police officers that the possession of a college degree represents?Historical Perspective for College better PoliceIn 1916, prideful Vollmer, the former Chief of Police of Berkeley, California, was the first to emphasize the need for police officers to have collegedegrees. At about the same time, the University of California at Berkeley began to offer law enforcement related naturallys.3 In 1931, The issue Commission on Law Observance and Enforcement (the Wickersham Commission) gave national recognition for higher educational standards and more professional police officers.4 Although the issue of college education for police officers was not specifically addressed, it laid the seat for subsequent calls to increase educational levels for police. Largely due to Vollmers influence, the University of California at Berkeley created a initiate of Police Administration in 1933, followed shortly thereafter by a similar school at Michigan State University.5 In 1936, Vollmer wrote in his book, The Police in Modern Society, that police officers should be admitd to have a college education.6 In 1967, the Presidents Comm ission on Law Enforcement and Administration of jurist made specific recommendations regarding increasing the level of police education.This report was followed by the passage of the Omnibus discourtesy Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968, which established the Law Enforcement cultivation Program (LEEP). LEEP, in part, provided grants and loans to officers to enroll in college and earn their degrees. This infusion of money created a large incentive for governances to develop academic programs geared toward law enforcement. As police officers began to return to or enter college, some institutions created accelerated or non conventional programs in criminal justice. Officers could receive recognise for realize in related courses and some courses were configured so officers did not have to meet as often as traditional courses. These types of programs were usually administered through the colleges backstage program. Today, many unexclusive and private institutions offer nontra ditional programs that are delivered in the online or e-learning format.According to the National Center for educational Statistics, in the 2000-2001 academic year, forty-eight percent of all four-year Title IV8 degree granting public institutions and thirty-three percent of four-year Title IV degree granting private institutions had degree programs for undergraduates that were to be completed in all through distance learning.9 Today there are an abundance of distance learning programs being marketed to police officers, especially online programs. The flexibility of the course schedule makes it attractive to busy students. Police officers can do their course work when it is convenient for them and some courses are designed tobe completed at the students own pace. Many departments have made strides in requiring some college education as a essential for hiring but most have not. The high school diploma still exists as the most common minimum educational requirement. Even where depa rtments have not required a college degree for hiring, many require or make it desirable to possess a degree for promotion. As early as 1989, the benefits to having educated officers were noted to include10 Greater knowledge of procedures, functions, and principles Better appreciation of their professional role and its importance in the criminal justice system as well as in clubhouse More desirable psychological make-up, which includes much(prenominal) qualities as alertness, empathy, flexibility, initiative, and intelligence Greater range of inter mortalal skills come to in their ability to communicate, to be responsive to differents, and to exercise benevolent leadership Greater ability to decompose situations, to exercise discretion independently, and to make judicious decisions Strong moral character, which reflects a sense of conscience and the qualities of honesty, reliability, and security deposit More desirable system of personal determine consistent with the p olice function in a democratic societyEven back in 1978, though, researchers expressed reservations about the quality of criminal justice programs. The rapid increase in program passs seemed to make some institutions gear their courses more vocationally than academically. several(prenominal) recommendations were made to overcome what was perceived as major quality problems in college programs developed for police officers. In addition to perceived quality problems in criminal justice programs, there was a business organisation that police officers would take college courses just to get the degree. In 1979, Goldstein stated, The factor that makes the whole movement toward college education for police violence most vulnerable to attack is the emphasis which has been put on the acquisition of college credentials without sufficient line for what is to be learned.Given the multitude of colleges and the number of people who attend them, the degree itself reflects little about the nu rtures or relevance of the educational experience.11 Clearly, the need to ensure that a college program is delivering the appropriate academic curriculum iscritical. In the past, an officer attended a local school and it was more than likely regionally accredited. Today, online colleges can market themselves a go after the United States or even internationally, claiming accreditation from some official sounding group. Accreditation, curriculum, and instructor competence are all of critical importance in a college program. More than a cristal ago, researchers articulated considerations that would be relevant as one considers the authority quality of an educational program. The recommendations included12 No college credit should be given for police academy and similar training Technical and professional police subjects should be limited to a maximum of twenty-tail fin percent of any curriculum A four-year baccalaureate degree should be the minimum educational qualification for en try into police service No one should be considered qualified to be a faculty member on the basis of experience alone Police education faculty should be held to the same standards as other college professors (i.e. Ph.D., masters degree minimum involvement in research and publication)These issues among others were converseed by a group of criminal justice related experts who were brought together in a nominal group setting to discuss online education and its potential effect on the futurity of law enforcement.The Nominal Group PanelAs part of a California Peace Officer Standards and Training Command College project, a dining table of interested professionals was formed to discuss future trends and events that may have an effect on law enforcement online educational programs in the next five years. It consisted of a Chief of Police of a medium sized police department, a professor who teaches online courses for a major public university and at a local lodge college, a deputy dist rict attorney, a police officer who is a former high school teacher, a police officer who is a member of the executive board for a police officers association, the criminal justice program coordinator for the local community college, the editor of the local weekly newspaper, and acounselor for a youth diversion program.There was consensus among the plug-in members that it is important for police officers to have a college education, and to possess the appropriate degree. The panel felt that a college education earned the traditional way (attending classes at a brick and mortar institution) was the best preparation for a person to be a police officer. The discussion included many of the issues published by researchers and criminal justice practitioners since the 1930s. The panel felt it was critical for police officers to be socialized with diversified groups of people and exposed to differing viewpoints. The undeniable skills of tact and diplomacy learned in a physically social en vironment, effective public speaking, and program line presence are attributes that are learned and reinforced in a traditional educational setting.The panel recognized it may be difficult for a police officer to pursue a traditional degree due to family and work obligations. So what is this officer to do? Many of the officers returning to college or entranceway college for the first time have turned to online college programs. The panel concluded the flexibility of online educational programs was a big opportunity for current police officers due to the demands of their course schedule. They also understood there was a proliferation of programs being marketed to police officers through police websites or law enforcement related magazines. Legitimate accreditation was a key concern about such programs. The panel members expressed that testing-retained knowledge could be problematic since testing is done in the same delivery format as coursework, and all tests were essentially open book.With regard to the value of such programs, panel members believed that a college degree earned through online programs was different than a college degree earned traditionally. The panel believed that criminal justice practitioners were overused in criminal justice programs especially in online programs. Their concern was the overall value of the college degree since true academic professors were not doing the teaching. They felt that for some disciplines, such as engineering, mathematics or history, an online program was sufficient. But when it came to being a police officer, class attendance and contact with other students opposite was preferable.The panel agreed, however, that much of what is done in a traditional setting could be doneonline, such as submittal of written reports or studies and coursework assignments. The panel also felt that too much academic credit was given for experience in police work through online programs. The panel felt that rather than swan on a p urely online program for an officer to obtain a four-year undergraduate degree, a cross or mark onrush, with a traditional program could bring the desired benefits of both delivery methods.The Educational HybridAmy Fanter, a researcher in the field of loan-blend education, noted that Hybrid counselling, or hybrid courses refer to classes where there is a carefully planned blend of both traditional classroom instruction and online learning activities.13 According to criminal justice researchers and practitioners (and supported by the expert panel) the most effective collegiate preparation for police officers are settings inclusive of a social environment. They should be exposed to other racial, ethnic, and diverse groups in an arena where ideas are broached, concepts discussed, and conflict is resolved through dialogue, research, and consensus. Many components of any finical course can be done using the online system (such as writing book reports, terminate written requirements and posting of thoughts on issues).If a class was required to meet for a certain tot of time every week or every two weeks, or even once a month to be tested on retained knowledge, to be challenged by other students on stances taken on issues, to participate by speaking about issues, and so on, then the socializing of the officer can be effectively satisfied. No matter how effective, a distance learning program not offering this option will impact skills that might only be gained in this type of setting. Using a hybrid approach for coursework would allow for the flexibility of online educational programs and meet the some of the critical benefits of traditional programs. Those that may advocate for pure e-learning should remain mindful of the soft skills necessary for the modern law enforcement officer, and the best opportunities to reach them.ConclusionThe desire for a police officer to have a college education appears settled.National commissions, criminal justice professional associations, academicians, attorneys, and courts have all expressed this view. The question remains how does the individual peace officer best do it? Attending the traditional college program at a brick and mortar campus seems to be the preferred way. This method may not be practical for some officers, so the alternative of the hybrid approach should be considered. It blends many of the positives from both traditional and online programs. Certainly, there may be situations where even a hybrid approach is not practical.It seems Vollmer and many others would support an online program to gain at least the concepts and critical thinking skills a collegiate education offers. Progressive police agencies may take the lead to shape their future by entering into a partnership with a local public or private institution to develop a hybrid program to be implemented for their staff. In any case, police worry should encourage officers and employees to return to college to earn their four-year degree. The result will be better staff and officers, and a better chance to meet the needs of today and tomorrow.ENDNOTES1 Bueermann, Jim, Redlands, California, The Police Chief, August 2006, accessed February 1, 2007, available at www.policechiefmagazine.org 2 Bowman, Theron, The Chiefs Perspective Demolishing the Recruitment Myth, The Police Chief, August 2006, accessed February 1, 2007, available at www.policechiefmagazine.org 3 Travis, Jeremy, Education in Law Enforcement Beyond the College Degree. An address presented to the Center for Research in Law and Justice, Chicago, February 10, 1995, accessed declination 19, 2006, available at http//www.ojp.usdoj.gov/nij/speeches/police.htm 4 Carter, David, Sapp, Allen, and Stephens, Darrel, The State of Police Education Policy complaint for the 21st Century, (Washington, D.C., 1989) 1 5 Carter, David, Sapp, Allen, and Stephens, Darrel, The State of Police Education Policy Direction for the 21st Century, (Washington, D.C., 1989) 4 6 Coons, Jeffrey, Studies, grapheme Law, Quotes, Standards and Trends in Support of College Education for Police Officers. An Information Paper for the Police Association for College Education, March 18, 2004, Accessed August 18, 2007, available at www.police-association.org 7 Carter, David, Sapp, Allen, and Stephens, Darrel, The State of Police Education Policy Direction for the21st Century, (Washington, D.C., 1989) 1 8 An institution that may participate in most Title IV federal student financial assistance programs, National Center for Education Statistics, accessed kinsfolk 9, 2007, available at http//nces.ed.gov/ipeds/glossary/index.asp?id=465 9 Distance Education at Degree-Granting Postsecondary Institutions 2000-2001. National Center for Education Statistics, accessed Sept 9, 2007, available at http//nces.ed.gov/pubs2003/2003017.pdf 10 Carter, David, Sapp, Allen, and Stephens, Darrel, The State of Police Education Policy Direction for the 21st Century, (Washington, D.C., 1989 ) 10-11 11 Carter, David, Sapp, Allen, and Stephens, Darrel, The State of Police Education Policy Direction for the 21st Century, (Washington, D.C., 1989) 24 12 Carter, David, Sapp, Allen, and Stephens, Darrel, The State of Police Education Policy Direction for the 21st Century, (Washington, D.C., 1989) 27 13 Fanter, Amy, Hybrid Education The Future of Instructional Models., World Wide Learn, accessed September 9, 2007, available at http//www.worldwidelearn.com/education-articles/hybrid-education.html

Monday, April 15, 2019

Cover Note Essay Example for Free

Cover Note Es utterThe Relation of Science and Religion is a facsimile of a talk deed overn by Dr. Feyn composition at the Caltech YMCA Lunch Forum on May 2, 1956. In this age of specialization men who thoroughly realize unrivalled field argon often entirelyterfingered to discuss a nonher. The with child(p) problems of the comparisons between bingle and an some opposite aspect of hu universe activity acquit for this reason been discussed less and less in public.When we look at the past big(p) debates on these subjects we emotional state jealous of those times, for we should set out give cared the excitement of much(prenominal) argument. The old problems, much(prenominal) as the relation of acquisition and theology, ar still with us, and I c either guts present as difficult dilemmas as ever, merely they argon not often publicly discussed because of the limitations of specialization. precisely I have been interested in this problem for a long time and woul d like to discuss it.In sensible horizon of my truly evident lack of association and understanding of worship (a lack which leave grow to a keener extent apparent as we proceed), I give organize the discussion in this way I will suppose that not one man merely a group of men are discussing the problem, that the group consists of specialists in mevery fields the discordant comprehensions, the various holinesss and so on and that we are going to discuss the problem from various sides, like a card. Each is to give his point of view, which may be molded and modified by the later discussion.Further, I imagine that someone has been chosen by lot to be the prototypical to present his views, and I am he so chosen. I would starting line by presenting the panel with a problem A novel man, brought up in a religious family, studies a recognition, and as a result he comes to disbelieve and perhaps later to dis call up in his fathers divinity. Now, this is not an isolated example it take chancess time and time again. Although I have no statistics on this, I believe that many scientists in fact, I actually believe that more than half of the scientists really disbelieve in their fathers theology that is, they dont believe in a paragon in a conventional sense.Now, since the belief in a God is a primeval characteristic of morality, this problem that I have selected points up most strongly the problem of the relation of skill and religion. wherefore does this young man come to disbelieve? The first behave we might hear is very truthful You see, he is taught by scientists, and (as I have just pointed place) they are all atheists at heart, so the repulsiveness is spread from one to another. But if you contribute entertain this view, I think you know less of comprehension than I know of religion.Another answer may be that a little knowledge is solemn this young man has learned a little bit and thinks he knows it all, but soon he will grow out of this sophomoric sophistication and come to realize that the world is more complicated, and he will begin again to understand that in that respect must(prenominal) be a God. I dont think it is carry that he come out of it. There are many scientists men who hope to call themselves senesce who still dont believe in God. In fact, as I would like to explain later, the answer is not that the young man thinks he knows it all it is the exact reversion.A third answer you might frig more or less is that this young man really doesnt understand science correctly. I do not believe that science can disprove the existence of God I think that is impossible. And if it is impossible, is not a belief in science and in a God an ordinary God of religion a consistent porta? Yes, it is consistent. Despite the fact that I said that more than half of the scientists dont believe in God, many scientists do believe in both science and God, in a perfectly consistent way.But this consistency, although possible, is not easy to attain, and I would like to try to discuss two things Why it is not easy to attain, and whether it is worth(predicate) attempting to attain it. When I say believe in God, of course, it is always a puzzle what is God? What I mean is the kind of personal God, characteristic of the western religions, to whom you pray and who has something to do with creating the universe and guiding you in lessons. For the student, when he learns more or less science, in that location are two sources of difficulty in severe to weld science and religion together.The first source of difficulty is this that it is imperative in science to doubt it is absolutely necessary, for bestride in science, to have un sealedty as a fundamental dissociate of your inner nature. To collapse get along in understanding we must remain modest and allow that we do not know. Nothing is certain or proved beyond all doubt. You investigate for curiosity, because it is unsung, not bec ause you know the answer. And as you develop more information in the sciences, it is not that you are unwraping out the truth, but that you are finding out that this or that is more or less likely.That is, if we investigate further, we find that the statements of science are not of what is authorized and what is not true, but statements of what is known to antithetic degrees of certainty It is very much more likely that so and so is true than that it is not true or such and such is almost certain but thither is still a little bit of doubt or at the other constitutional hygienic, we really dont know. Every one of the concepts of science is on a scale graduated somewhere between, but at neither contain of, absolute falsity or absolute truth.It is necessary, I believe, to accept this idea, not only for science, but also for other things it is of great apprise to acknowledge ignorance. It is a fact that when we make decisions in our carriage we dont necessarily know that we a re making them correctly we only think that we are doing the best we can and that is what we should do. Attitude of uncertainty I think that when we know that we actually do experience in uncertainty, then we ought to admit it it is of great value to realize that we do not know the answers to contrastive top dogs.This attitude of mind this attitude of uncertainty is vital to the scientist, and it is this attitude of mind which the student must first acquire. It becomes a habit of thought. Once acquired, one cannot retreat from it any more. What happens, then, is that the young man begins to doubt everything because he cannot have it as absolute truth. So the examination permutes a little bit from Is there a God? to How sure is it that there is a God? This very subtle change is a great stroke and represents a parting of the ways between science and religion.I do not believe a real scientist can ever believe in the analogous way again. Although there are scientists who belie ve in God, I do not believe that they think of God in the same way as religious people do. If they are consistent with their science, I think that they say something like this to themselves I am almost certain there is a God. The doubt is very small. That is quite contrasting from saying, I know that there is a God. I do not believe that a scientist can ever obtain that view that really religious understanding, that real knowledge that there is a God that absolute certainty which religious people have.Of course this process of doubt does not always start by attacking the doubt of the existence of God. Usually special tenets, such as the question of an afterlife, or details of the religious doctrine, such as details of Christs life, come under scrutiny first. It is more interesting, however, to go right into the central problem in a frank way, and to discuss the more extreme view which doubts the existence of God. Once the question has been removed from the absolute, and gets t o sliding on the scale of uncertainty, it may end up in very different positions.In many cases it comes out very close to being certain. But on the other hand, for some, the net result of close scrutiny of the theory his father held of God may be the claim that it is almost certainly wrong. Belief in God and the facts of science That brings us to the south difficulty our student has in trying to weld science and religion Why does it often end up that the belief in God at least, the God of the religious type is considered to be very unreasonable, very unlikely?I think that the answer has to do with the scientific things the facts or partial facts that the man learns. For instance, the size of the universe is very impressive, with us on a tiny particle whirling around the sun, among a hundred thousand million suns in this galaxy, itself among a billion galaxies. Again, there is the close relation of biological man to the wildcats, and of one form of life to another. Man is a la tecomer in a gigantic evolving drama can the rest be but a scaffolding for his creation?Yet again, there are the atoms of which all appears to be constructed, following immutable laws. Nothing can escape it the stars are make of the same stuff, and the animals are made of the same stuff, but in such complexity as to cryptically appear alive like man himself. It is a great adventure to contemplate the universe beyond man, to think of what it means without man as it was for the great part of its long history, and as it is in the great majority of places.When this objective view is finally attained, and the mystery and majesty of matter are appreciated, to then bid the objective eye back on man viewed as matter, to see life as part of the universal mystery of greatest depth, is to sense an experience which is rarely described. It usually ends in laughter, delight in the futility of trying to understand. These scientific views end in awe and mystery, lost at the edge in uncertainty, but they appear to be so deep and so impressive that the theory that it is all arranged simply as a stage for God to watch mans struggle for good and evil seems to be inadequate.So let us suppose that this is the case of our particular student, and the conviction grows so that he believes that individual prayer, for example, is not heard. (I am not trying to disprove the reality of God I am trying to give you some idea of some sympathy for the reasons why many come to think that prayer is meaningless. ) Of course, as a result of this doubt, the pattern of doubting is turned next to honourable problems, because, in the religion which he learned, object lesson problems were connected with the word of God, and if the God doesnt exist, what is his word?But rather surprisingly, I think, the honourableistic problems eventually come out relatively unscathed at first perhaps the student may fall that a few little things were wrong, but he often reverses his opinion later, and ends with no fundamentally different moral view. There seems to be a kind of independence in these ideas. In the end, it is possible to doubt the divinity of Christ, and just to believe firmly that it is a good thing to do unto your neighbor as you would have him do unto you.It is possible to have both these views at the same time and I would say that I hope you will find that my atheistic scientific colleagues often carry themselves well in society. Communism and the scientific viewpoint I would like to remark, in passing, since the word atheism is so well connected with communism, that the communist views are the antithesis of the scientific, in the sense that in communism the answers are given to all the questions political questions as well as moral ones without discussion and without doubt.The scientific viewpoint is the exact opposite of this that is, all questions must be doubted and discussed we must argue everything out observe things, check them, and so change them. The d emocratic government is much closer to this idea, because there is discussion and a chance of modification. One doesnt assemble the ship in a definite direction. It is true that if you have a tyranny of ideas, so that you know exactly what has to be true, you act very decisively, and it looks good for a while.But soon the ship is target in the wrong direction, and no one can modify the direction any more. So the uncertainties of life in a democracy are, I think, much more consistent with science. Although science makes some collision on many religious ideas, it does not affect the moral content. Religion has many aspects it answers all kinds of questions. First, for example, it answers questions intimately what things are, where they come from, what man is, what God is the properties of God, and so on. Let me call this the metaphysical aspect of religion. It also tells us another thing how to behave.Leave out of this the idea of how to behave in certain ceremonies, and what r ites to perform I mean it tells us how to behave in life in general, in a moral way. It gives answers to moral questions it gives a moral and ethical code. Let me call this the ethical aspect of religion. Now, we know that, even with moral values granted, human beings are very weak they must be reminded of the moral values in order that they may be able to follow their consciences. It is not simply a matter of having a right conscience it is also a question of maintaining strength to do what you know is right.And it is necessary that religion give strength and comforter and the dream to follow these moral views. This is the inspirational aspect of religion. It gives inspiration not only for moral conduct it gives inspiration for the arts and for all kinds of great thoughts and actions as well. Interconnections These terzetto aspects of religion are interconnected, and it is generally felt, in view of this close integration of ideas, that to attack one feature of the agreement i s to attack the whole structure.The three aspects are connected more or less as follows The moral aspect, the moral code, is the word of God which involves us in a metaphysical question. Then the inspiration comes because one is functional the will of God one is for God partly one feels that one is with God. And this is a great inspiration because it brings ones actions in contact with the universe at large. So these three things are very well interconnected. The difficulty is this that science occasionally conflicts with the first of the three categories the metaphysical aspect of religion. For instance, in the past there was an argument about whether the earth was the center of the universe whether the earth moved around the sun or stayed still. The result of all this was a terrible strife and difficulty, but it was finally resolved with religion retreating in this particular case. More recently there was a conflict over the question of whether man has animal ancestry. The res ult in many of these situations is a retreat of the religious metaphysical view, but nevertheless, there is no collapse of the religion.And further, there seems to be no appreciable or fundamental change in the moral view. After all, the earth moves around the sun isnt it best to torn the other cheek? Does it make any difference whether the earth is standing still or moving around the son? We can have a bun in the oven conflict again. Science is developing and new things will be found out which will he in disagreement with the presentday metaphysical theory of certain religions. In fact, even with all the past retreats of religion, there is still real conflict for particular individuals when they learn about the science and they have heard about the religion.The thing has not been integrated very well there are real conflicts here and yet morals are not affected. As a matter of fact, the conflict is doubly difficult in this metaphysical region. Firstly, the facts may be in confli ct, but even if the facts were not in conflict, the attitude is different. The philia of uncertainty in science is an attitude toward the metaphysical questions that is quite different from the certainty and faith that is demanded in religion.There is definitely a conflict, I believe both in fact and in shade over the metaphysical aspects of religion. In my opinion, it is not possible for religion to find a set of metaphysical ideas which will be guaranteed not to get into conflicts with an everadvancing and alwayschanging science which is going into an unknown. We dont know how to answer the questions it is impossible to find an answer which someday will not be found to be wrong.The difficulty arises because science and religion are both trying to answer questions in the same realm here. Science and moral questions On the other hand, I dont believe that a real conflict with science will arise in the ethical aspect, because I believe that moral questions are outside of the scien tific realm. Let me give three or four arguments to show why I believe this. In the first place, there have been conflicts in the past between the scientific and the religious view about the metaphysical aspect and, nevertheless, the aged moral views did not collapse, did not change.Second, there are good men who practice Christian ethics and who do not believe in the divinity of Christ. They find themselves in no inconsistency here. Thirdly, although I believe that from time to time scientific evidence is found which may be partially understand as giving some evidence of some particular aspect of the life of Christ, for example, or of other religious metaphysical ideas, it seems to me that there is no scientific evidence bearing on the golden rule. It seems to me that that is somehow different.Now, lets see if I can make a little philosophical explanation as to why it is different how science cannot affect the fundamental basis of morals. The typical human problem, and one whos e answer religion aims to supply, is always of the following form Should I do this? Should we do this? Should the government do this? To answer this question we can resolve it into two parts First If I do this, what will happen? and endorse Do I want that to happen?What would come of it of value of good? Now a question of the form If I do this, what will happen?is strictly scientific. As a matter of fact, science can be defined as a method for, and a body of information obtained by, trying to answer only questions which can be put into the form If I do this, what will happen? The technique of it, fundamentally, is Try it and see. Then you put together a large amount of information from such experiences. All scientists will agree that a question any question, philosophical or other which cannot be put into the form that can be tested by experiment (or, in simple terms, that cannot be put into the formIf I do this, what will happen?) is not a scientific question it is outside t he realm of science. I claim that whether you want something to happen or not what value there is in the result, and how you judge the value of the result (which is the other end of the question Should I do this? ) must lie outside of science because it is not a question that you can answer only by knowing what happens you still have to judge what happens in a moral way.So, for this theoretical reason I think that there is a complete consistency between the moral view or the ethical aspect of religion and scientific information. Turning to the third aspect of religion the inspirational aspect brings me to the central question that I would like to present to this imaginary panel. The source of inspiration today for strength and for comfort in any religion is very closely knit with the metaphysical aspect that is, the inspiration comes from working for God, for obeying his will, feeling one with God.Emotional ties to the moral code based in this manner begin to be severely weakened when doubt, even a small amount of doubt, is expressed as to the existence of God so when the belief in God becomes uncertain, this particular method of obtaining inspiration fails. I dont know the answer to this central problem the problem of maintaining the real value of religion, as a source of strength and of fearlessness to most men, while, at the same time, not requiring an absolute faith in the metaphysical aspects.The heritages of Western culture Western civilization, it seems to me, stands by two great heritages. One is the scientific spirit of adventure the adventure into the unknown, an unknown which must be recognized as being unknown in order to be explored the demand that the unanswerable mysteries of the universe remain unanswered the attitude that all is uncertain to summarize it the humility of the intellect.The other great heritage is Christian ethics the basis of action on love, the brotherhood of all men, the value of the individual the humility of the spirit. These two heritages are logically, thoroughly consistent. But logic is not all one needs ones heart to follow an idea. If people are going back to religion, what are they going back to? Is the modern church a place to give comfort to a man who doubts Godmore, one who disbelieves in God?Is the modern church a place to give comfort and encouragement to the value of such doubts? So far, have we not drawn strength and comfort to maintain the one or the other of these consistent heritages in a way which attacks the values of the other? Is this unavoidable? How can we draw inspiration to support these two pillars of western civilization so that they may stand together in beneficial vigor, mutually unafraid? Is this not the central problem of our time? I put it up to the panel for discussion.

Saturday, April 13, 2019

Service to Mankind Essay Example for Free

Service to Mankind EssayNot much over a hundred years ago, electricity, except in the form of lightning, was an unknown force. Its discovery was due to Michael Faraday, the great English scientist. On one occasion, about 1830, he was showing one of his early experiments to a distinguished federation at the Royal Institution in London. He showed that when a magnet was brought suddenly near a coil of wire, a slight current of electricity was produced in the wire. Afterwards a lady tell to him, But, Professor Faraday, even if the effect you explained is obtained, what is the use of it? Madam, replied Faraday, will you tell me the use of a new-born pincer?The new-born child has grown to be a full-grown giant for it is now one of the greatest natural forces that while has tamed to his own service. The ways in which men have learnt to use this great force are so many those only a few can be touched upon here. The first issuance of Faradays discovery was the electric telegraph, by which messages can be sent to a distance by delegacy of an electric current sent along a conducting wire. Telegraphy means writing-at-a-distance. The first telegraph was installed in England, in 1835. Since then it has spread all over the world. Not long after, the submarine electric bank line was laid under the Atlantic Ocean, connecting England with America.The next great invention was the electric telephone, first installed in England in 1876. The word telephone means speaking-at-a-distance for by the telephone the human voice is carried to a distance by an electric current carried along a conducting wire. By its means we can talk to people, and hear them talk of the town to us, hundreds of miles away. In our own time has come the wonderful invention of radio or wireless. Marconi found that messages could be sent by the electric waves in the ether, without any conducting wires.This led to broadcasting, by which we can hear melody and speeches from countries hundreds and e ven thousands of miles away. Electric light came into use in the 19th Century, and it is the most used form of fervor today. Then electric power was applied as a motive force to machinery and electric trams, electric trains, and electrically driven machinery came into use. Electricity is used also for heating houses, for cooking, for refrigerating, and in many other utile ways. If the nineteenth century was the age of steam, the period in which we are now living is the age of electricity.

Friday, April 12, 2019

Life in the 13 Original Colonies Essay Example for Free

Life in the 13 Original Colonies EssayIn the 1600s and 1700s, the economies of the northern and secern colonies were affected due to many incompatible cistrons. Because of the different climates and geography of their land, the northern colonies and southern colonies had different resources available to them, which shaped their societies into what they are today. The resources available to the northern colonies were completely different from the resources that were available to the southern colonies.In the northern colonies, due to the climate and geography of their land, range growth wasnt as successful as it was in the south. The could weather and rocky land do it hard for them so as time went on, the northern colonies became much of an industrial people and relied more on manufacturing things like naval equipment and amusing. A few of the northern colonies participated in what they called a triangular trade clay where New England traded rum for slaves from Africa and then these slaves were given to the west indies in exchange for sugar and molasses, which was made into rum again.The northern colonies heavily relied on this system and it was this that brought New England success. In the south, the climate was mainly warm and consummate(a) for return growth so the southern colonies became more agricultural. The main reason the south had such corking success in the area of crop growth was because they discovered a great cash crop called tobacco. Due to its addictive nature and great taste, the demand for it was very high. The south purchased tons of slaves because farmers relied on slavery to help the success of their farms and crops. They were different from the northern colonies in this way because the north rarely utilise slaves.They merely transported them. Education was strongly affected by the geography and climate also, believe it or not. The pairing was cold and hard to grow crops in so they were more industrial based. This meant that all of the people need to know how to read and write in order to make deals with the other nations. In the northern colonies, in that location were very few public schools. Therefore, the parents of children usually just hired a tutor until they went off to a university. If the family couldnt afford a tutor, then they either sent the child to a public school, or didnt educate them at all. In the south, the climate and geography was perfect for growing crops. Therefore most people lived on large farms called plantations.There was less emphasis on education in the south because most of the people wereslaves or indentured servants. Also, even many of the landowners didnt know how to read or write because not much is needed to know in order to farm and they didnt flip to worry about trading overseas. They left that to the north.Ultimately, the geography and climate of the northern and southern colonies was the main factor that shaped the societies into what they are today. For insta nce, the north had horrible luck in climate for crop growth, which made them more of an industrial group of settlers. The south thrived on crop growth, which made them more of an agricultural group of settlers.

Wednesday, April 10, 2019

Slavery In the Chocolate Factory Essay Example for Free

bondage In the deep brown Factory Essay lineament is the measurement of excellence or state of universe free from deficiency, defects, and signifi evoket variations, (Nader, 2009). whole tone of a annex fire be mainly assessed from a citer and a customer spirit level of view. From a customer point of view, product bore is perspective as from each one individual perceives grapheme antitheticly. Ultimately, product lumber is the capability of the product to fulfil customer expectations as mandatory from the users. Quality from a manufacturers perspective depends on company size, culture, financial resources, kind resources, market pressures and company st investgy. Due to the availability of a full-size number of products in the market, different industries hand oer put forward different parameters that allow a product to be judged against the competition. For example, an electronic product whitethorn endure character parameters much(prenominal) as manageanc e, reliability, safety and appearance that has to be met (UNIDO, 2006). demonstrate reference surgery spirit targets the life cycle of a product from the beginning, design, development, roll out(a), updates and product relief.Both product and look quality argon combined together and quality catch measures put in get into to get word the final outcome is of a postgraduate quality. Interaction between product quality and physical knead quality In point to produce a quality product it requires a quality appendage. This involves respecting the mathematical surgery in unconscious process(p) at a level that complies with required quality criteria. When the quality of a process varies it get out see a direct impact on product characteristics and hence product quality. For example, a metal producing instal has processes such as cutting, machining, bending and coating.The smoothness, hardness and thickness etc of the metal be directly impacted by the quality of the p rocesses. Once the metal is manufactured, the customer go out judge it against the product specification and make a judgement on quality. (McG blunt-Hill, 2002) Scharffen Berger java Maker is a company that prides itself on product quality. As a result of this it led to an increase in customer demand and an increase in market share. To maintain the game quality of the end product while meeting demand, Jim Harris and co.put in place procedures that help them to retain quality throughout the different stages of the action process. The following table returns a summary of the quality techniques used in the production line Table 1 Quality Techniques in Production parentage Production StageQuality assurance and quality run across techniques used to maintain quality of the process Bean spicThe precise process associated with separating the chase away from beans. Once cleaned, storing the beans under specific climate and humidity controls RoasterRoasting different types of bean s separately.Human tasting WinnowerPrecise process associated with separating cocoa beans from the shell MelangeurQuality exam of the product for texture, admiration perception and physical properties ConcheQuality testing of the product d atomic number 53 through a scrape gauge to measure the level of smoothness normalize and moldingHuman testing for texture, snap and taste Packaging plosive consonant quality after the production line GeneralBlind tasting at different stages Hiring practiced operators Calibration of equipment All the above processes result assist in maintaining the quality of the final product.While victimisation tertiary party companies with the productions process, product quality is maintain by random sampling and testing to go through the product meets required specifications. Quality process analysis Quality control measures are put into place before and during the production process to ensure the raw substantials and processes are of acceptable qua lity. To ensure a utmost quality product at each stage of the production process quality techniques coffin nail be used such as quality assurance (QA), quality control (QC) and through means of incessant process profits.By implementing these strategies duty risks with regard to quality base be managed. However, a embody improvement analysis is required to be carried out to de landmarkine if the extent of quality assurance and quality control is beneficial to the task. The final inspection of the product is used for quality assurance as well. There is a fine balance between quality and cost of any product. If the product maintains a higher than required quality and the cost is high due to this very requirement, demand go forth decrease.Therefore, quality should be maintained at a level where it is sustainable so that a the product screwing be cost effective to face a competitive market. In the case study, Harriss team experiments with different techniques to undertake the succession required to prepare the burnt umber at different stages of the process of chocolate make. It is clear that with the changes in the processes of chocolate production, the final quality was some eras so much affected that the pioneers of the factory refused to endorse the change. This proves that thither is an undeniable interaction between product quality and process quality.However, the decision was made to make changes in the process precisely after so more trials, testing and tasting. This demonstrates that, In gild to make a computable quality product a series of quality processes are required. To maintain quality process a series of quality control systems are required. In a process quality control scheme the sequence of the musical notes is very important as some processes will be particular which would reflect largely in the quality of the final product. The following table details each process where Harris and his team have turn backd quality control s chemes to minimise variation.Table 2 Harriss Quality Control Schemes in the process Process sequenceQuality control Raw material quality controlPurchase BeansFind the farmers who grew the highest quality bean Ferment beans properly before dried and shipped to US Process quality controlBean CleanerThe precise process associated with separating the waste from beans. Once cleaned, storing the beans under specific climate and humidity controls. RoasterRoasting different types of beans separately to optimize the flavor. Operator oversee the temperature and taste the sample. WinnowerPrecise process associated with separating cocoa beans from the shell.MelangeurUse historical melangeur to perform task. Operator determined the time of completion found on look, feel, and taste. Ball MillIt provide quality benefits by decreasing the amount of flavor degradation. The resulting chocolate be tested and evaluated for quality. ConcheAeration was an important step for the quality control as bubbl e will created when blades moves. Quality testing of the product done through a scrape gauge to measure the level of smoothness Tempering and moldingHuman testing for level of stability, glossy surface, smooth feel in the mouth and snap.Quality control when transporting fluent chocolate to third-party molding. Finished product inspectionPackagingOwn packing in order to keep a close shopping mall on quality. Third-party pacing as they have better equipment and quality control. Quality control at when re-melt and re-temper procedure. lay off quality after the production line. Critical control points (CCp) can affect the quality of the entire product. However, non all steps in the process are considered as critical points. Specification or guidelines can assist in maintaining quality of certain products.These set regulations and standards such as to ISO 9000 and ISO 9001 that need to be complied with in a process. Transport or shipping becomes critical points because for example, the basic problem with transporting chocolate in containers is its comparatively low melting point. Solar radiation and other(a) external influences (heat sources, such as double merchantman tanks, engine rooms) may cause the temperature in the container to rise considerably and exceed the melting point, so making enormous quality degradation inevitable. Process con rigorousions.A hinder in project management is one process in a scope of processes, such that its limited condenser stamp downs the electrical condenser of the whole chain (Wikipedia, 2012). The efficiency of the production process is determined by the long-play chain task. These mute tasks are referred to as chokepoints and they have an impact on the throughput of a manufacturing process. Bottlenecks in a manufacturing process refer to resources that requires the longest time in operation to meet demand. One of the characteristics of bottlenecks is that it makes the run rate of the non-bottlenecks operate be low 100%. thusly increase message of the bottlenecks helps to reduce the time required for the entire process. However when one bottleneck is eliminated then another bottleneck is usually formed (Imaoka, 2009). The bottlenecks in the process can inhibit flow, cause inventories, and proscribe throughout from matching customer demand. This chapter determine the capacity of bottlenecks throughout the process, analysed the management and improvement methods in order to make progress towards Scharffen Bergers goal. Process flow diagram.The first step to create a process flow diagram is to define the process boundaries. The process boundaries are the entry and exit points of inputs and produces of the process. The input of Scharffen Berger deep brown Maker process is the raw chocolate bean and the output will be packaged chocolate ready to sell. Once the boundaries are defined, the process flow diagram is a valuable tool for savvy the process victimization graphic elements to repres ent tasks, flows and storage. intercept 1 is flow diagram represents Scharffen Berger coffee tree maker production process at earlier 2005Figure 1 Scharffen Berger Chocolate Maker Production Process The symbols in a process flow diagram are defined as follows Rectangles represent tasks. The equipment capacity, process capacity, duration and flow time are listed under each of the task. Arrows represent flows. draws include the flow of material and the flow of information. In this case the flow represents flow of raw bean, roast bean, waste, Nibs, and chocolate.Triangles represent storage ( origin). depot bins commonly are used to represent raw material inventory, work in process inventory, and finished goods inventory. The process flow diagram linked tasks in series are performed sequentially. Tasks drawn in latitude such as devil Conche machine and different packaging options are performed simultaneously.In the above diagram, raw bean is held in a storage bin at the beginnin g of the process. After the last task, the output overly is stored in a storage warehouse. Scharffen Berger typically kept on to 2 monthes of inventory in stock for each of its major products. Process performance measures.In order to identify the bottlenecks in Scharffen Berger Chocolate manufacture process, the process performance measures become essential, this aspects include Capacity The capacity is its maximum quantity that the equipment overt to perform in once. This parameter can affect the process rate and utilisation of equipment. Process capacity The process capacity is its maximum output rate, measured in units produced per unit of time. The capacity of a series of tasks is determined by the lowest capacity task in the string. The parallel tasks is the sum of the capacities of the devil strings.Flow time The average time that a unit requires to flow through the process from the entry point to the exit point. The flow time includes both processing time and any time the unit go through between steps. Duration The duration is the total running time of each of the task in a week unit, it can be one shift a day, seven days a week. The inventory in the process is related to the throughput rate and throughput time WIP Inventory = Throughput Rate x Flow while This relation is known as Littles Law, named after John D. C Little whos proven it mathematically in 1961 (Barton et al, 2002). The process bottleneck improvement.The process bottleneck occurred at the slowest flow rate of the series task in the process. The bottleneck can be found by comparing the process capacity. Saving time in the bottlenecks activity saves time for the entire process. Saving time in a non-bottleneck activity does not help the process since throughout rate is limited by the bottleneck. If the next slowest task is much faster than the bottleneck, then the bottleneck is having a major impact on the process capacity (Starnes, 2000). direct hour The first bottleneck of prod uction capacity throughout process was place as operating hour.Before Harris manage the Scharffen Berger, in order to revoke overtime turn overment to employee, the business only operating one shift per day. The equipments such as Conches, Melangeurs, were not efficiently used. Harris calculated each completed conche could be worth over $30,000 in sales and industry average 40% in contribution on sales. It would be worth to pay overtime and increase productions. Conche operating The second capacity bottleneck throughout the process can be identified as conche operating hour. Scharffen Berger owned two Conches used to refine, mix and aerate the chocolate.The disadvantage of this machine is time consuming, each 1400kg bath of chocolate hard drink typically spend 48 to 72 hours inside of the conche machine. Figure 2 indicate the identified bottleneck task (red colour) in the Scharffen Berger Chocolate Maker process in earlier 2005. Figure 2 Conche Bottleneck in Scharffen Berger Pro cess The production rate of Conche is the slowest compare with other tasks. The total capacity for two Conche is 2800kg, and its requiring 40-60 hrs to finish each operation, Conche working(a) 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. The capacity of the melangeur is 115kg and requires 1. 25hr to finish the job.The working duration of melangeur is 16 hours a day, 7 days a week. By applying production rate radiation pattern By comparing the production rate, the bottleneck of the process can be identified as conche task. Two conche working 24hours a day compare with melangur only work 16 hours a day, the maximum working hour of melangur can not be reached as it constrained by slow operation of conche. In order to improve bottleneck of conche, the ball footle has been introduced as it can perform most conche tasks effectively. Instead of 40-60 hours, the ball mill can grain particles from 100 microns to 25 microns in trinity hours.The conche would still be needed for its aeration mixing funct ion. The total operation time for ball mill and conche can reduce to 15 hours instead 40-60 hours. Melangeur operating After the company decided to use ball mill instead of conches, melangeur becomes the capacity bottleneck throughout the process. The capacity of the ball mill and conche is 1400kg and requires 15 hours to finish the job. The working duration of melangeur is 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. By applying production rate formula Since the production rate of melangeur only 1472 kg/day, the melangeur becomes the capacity bottleneck throughout the process.Figure 3 represent the new flow chart as the ball mill introduced. The melangeur was used to grind the nibs this released the cocoa butter and turned the dry nibs into chocolate paste. The company recently located a used melangeur that could be purchased and refurbished for $50,000. Figure 3 Melangeur Bottleneck in Scharffen Berger Process Molding process The last bottleneck affect the production capacity process could be modelling process. The larger, faster modelling equipment would be prohibitively expensive, and several third party co-packers had excess capacity and would be able to model more Scharffen Bergers chocolate.Harris thought Scharffen Berger might avoid the resulting duplication of the tempering and modelling steps by transferring the legato chocolate directly to the co-packer. Figure 4 shows the operating process when the modelling and packaging task been given to the third party and co-packers. Figure 4 Third Party Molding and Co-Packer for Scharffen Berger Process In this stage, the process boundaries at output point will change from chocolate ready to sell to liquid chocolate. The modelling and packaging task has been withdrawn from operation process.But the challenges is transporting liquid chocolate was a very tricky, expensive and require high level of quality control with third parties. Future improvements The following lists some methods that can improve the operation process for Scharffen Berger Chocolate maker Add additional resources to increase capacity of the bottleneck. For example, an additional Roaster or Cleaner machine can be added in parallel to increase the capacity. Reduce work-in-process inventory. Reduce the lead time such as reduce the cooling time after roasting the coffee bean.Move task away from bottleneck resources. Increase availability of bottleneck resources, for example, increasing the daily operating hour for melangeur from 16hours a day to 24 hours a day. Minimize non-value adding activities. Such as reduce transporting time, rework, waiting time, testing and inspection time. Redesign the chocolate type for better manufacturability can improve several or all process performance measures. Quality Process For a Premium Quality Product The main aim of any organisation is to provide customer satisfaction by providing product and serve.Quality of an end product requires production design establish on customer feedback which not on ly minimises loss but also provides competitive advantages. In Scharffen Berger Chocolate maker case study Scharffen berger prioritises specific areas to achieve a high quality product . These areas are as follows Raw material- Scharffen Berger prided itself on using the highest quality beans available from countries such as Ghana, Trinidad, Jamaica, Domician Republic, Madagascar, and other countries. Scharffen Berger intermingle up to 9 varieties of beans to make each type of chocolate unlike other companies that used only 2 different types of beans.Steinberg and Scharffen travelled to remote regions near the equator to find farmers who grew the highest quality beans and to ensure that these farmers allowed there beans to bend properly before shipping them. 2) Cleaning Prior to being cook, beans were poured into a large bean dry-cleaned machine that separated cocoa beans from objects like dust, piddling stones and twigs 3) Roaster To enhance the flavour all cocoa beans were roasted before they could be sent to make chocolates. Scharffen Berger roasted each kind of bean separately in order to optimise flavour.The sample was tasted by them regularly in order to check whether the roasting is complete. agree to Harris, practice of tasting is the best methods of measurements at each stage of the chocolate production process. Once beans were roasted they were used within a few days in order to optimise flavour. 3) Conche Once the chocolates left over(p) the melaunger there were still some small nib pieces that needed to be ground further. This was done in the conche. Other grant quality products were also added in the conches which broke all the ingredients down to microscopic pieces.Experiments were also done with powdered sugar in order to reduce the time for Conching but found the taste unacceptable. 4) Tempering and moulding This process was to be done in a specific sequence with a certain degree of stirring. It was used to avoid duplication of the tempering and moulding steps by transferring the liquid steps to co-packers 5) Quality Control This was the most important step performed in order to get a premium quality product. Operators measured the quality of the product by examining its look and texture, breaking it and tasting it.At least once in 15 days, Scharffen Berger management and machine operators got together to calibrate their perceptions and standards for acceptable quality by blind testing the beans and chocolate at various stages of production. 6) Equipment Balmill using Balmills can increase the capacity of production at least 75%. In addition, it will be extra beneficial for the products with high sugar content by decreasing the amount of flavour degradation that can occur when a premium product is over-processed and excessively manipulated. New equipment such as ball mill will assist in increasing capacity and efficiency of the process.7) Quality Control Operators measured the quality of chocolate by consta ntly examining its appearance, texture, tasting and breaking it. The quality of the product is checked at various stages to test if it is good to be sold. As a result of these quality checks the number of defects in the final product is rock-bottom and will also lead to an overall increase in organizational performance. In addition this will also have a positive flow on effect on customer confidence and customer satisfaction of the product which will yield further increase in demand.8) Every two months, management and machine operators calibrate their perception and standards for acceptable quality by blind testing. 9) Operating time Increased conformance to legislation such as carbon emissions by reducing operating time. For example the existing conches are operated 24 hours a day and seven days a week. By replacing the conches with the new ball mill, Harris (Chief operating Officer of Scharffen Berger Chocolate Maker) and his team will reduces the operating time of machinery an d increase the efficiency of the process. Adantages of high quality productAdvantages of developing high quality products are, Increase in demand needs increased generate. Addressing the bottlenecks of the production process and improving stages of the process will assist with increasing supply. Increase in customer satisfaction and improving the business output. Using Quality Assurance techniques to check the product at various stages by tasting or testing to ensure that the final product obtained is of premium quality and meets customer expectations will lead to increase in business growth as the customer numbers will increase. Quality improvement is a planed managerial activity.It involves identifying potential improvements, prioritized potential areas of improvement and planning and the implementation of projects and improvements, (Foster, 2010). Scharffen Berger prioritized potential areas of improvement. Then these improvements were planned and implemented in several stages i n order to achieve a premium quality product. Every year, more than 30,000 volume toured the factory and many of these visitors bought the products during these tours. By demonstrating how good the quality of the processes was, Scharffen Berger won the confidence of his clients.Moreover, quality processes can be used to manage risks in the production line. As a result quality processes can be used as a risk mitigation strategy by business. In the case of Scharffen Berger Chocolate Maker, the types of risks that can be decrease by quality processes are quality of raw material, appearance, texture, snapping and tasting. In addition to risk management, customers in universal are willing to pay an additional amount of money for a premium quality product. consequently there is a niche market for these chocolates.In order to satisfy customers in this market the business needs to follow high quality process development techniques and produce an end product that will satisfy their high expectations. Innovation leads to high quality process development in the long term and an increase in system efficiency. Hence overtime this will result in competitive advantages over the other products and a greater market share in the industry. Another benefit of high quality process development is that it will lead to standardization or bench marking.Benefits of standardization includes for instance, increase in cost effectiveness (e.g. decrease in manufacturing cost), improve negotiating power with third party companies, simplify support and training, simplify purchase of raw materials, procurement, upgrade and disposal of plant materials and economies of scale in manufacturing, training and testing. laid-back quality process development will also minimise the failure costs of the product, both inbred and external. Reasons for using a high quality process The aim of Scharffen Berger chocolate maker is to produce premium chocolates. In order to produce premium chocolates Harri s and his team requires high quality process development.Some of the reasons for using a high quality process development are as follows Another benefit of maintaining supply to future demand is the perceived quality of the product by the customers will improve due to an increase in customer satisfaction. It also improves aesthetics of the Scharffen Berger Chocolates such as taste. Increases reliability of the production line with automation for example the use of the ball mill. It gives the company the opportunity for continuous improvement. For example Harris and his team carried out many investigations to reduce bottlenecks and to increase capacity of the existing production line.As an outcome of their investigation they decided to incorporate a new ball mill. Quality management is incorporated into the production line to ensure agreement of the quality of the product is maintained. This can be reflected in the case study by Harris and his team employing a skilled workforce. Qu ality assurance is maintained throughout the production line to ensure the high quality of the end product. For example Harris and his team undertook extensive testing and tasting of the product at various stages of production. This address aims to explain the issues underlining the Cocoa industry mainly in entropy Africa.It relates to nestling trafficking and the actions that corporations such as Nestles and impair are taking in order to tackle this issue. Lastly it will conclude the actions one can take as a manager in order to resolve these issues using different theories and approaches. chela Trafficking Child Trafficking is in direct violation of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948-2008 which states that all humans have a choice to work to just and favourable conditions of work. It also states that everyone should be paid fairly and passable to their work.Lastly it states that everyone has the right to rest and limitation on working hours. Children in South A frica. India and other countries in general arent given any of these things. It is the duty of the people high in power to enforce these rights onto their people by putting strict restrictions which can lead to punishments if broken. Dealing with an issue on a large scale is difficult as it is extremely difficult to keep an eye on such small areas of an operation. Due to the high number of production and harvesting it is easy for companies such as SAF-CACAO to keep their secrets confidential from their buyers e.g.Nestle. However Chocolate manufacturers arent bothered by these issues as their main objective is to maximise profits. Due to the high volume of Coco they buy even a small percentage of increase in cost per kg of coco can lead to a huge rise in costs in production. Nestle signed an agreement to end child labour in 2001 however they have failed in this because they didnt deem out checks on their suppliers in South Africa. Reports show that 1. 8 Million children are soon in danger of being used as slaves (Humphrey Hawksley, 2012).Companies such as Nestle and Mars can still deal with this issue by boycotting SAF-CACAO and other companies using child labour because this can reduce their profits and pressuring them into bankruptcy. The world must shift the focus of trade from being driven solely by profits to serve people-cantered development (Yash Tandon Executive Director of South Centre). If Nestle stops buying from inequitable suppliers then this in return promote a better image of their business which will seeming to increase their sales and customers will be more happy with Nestles actions.According to McGregors theories X Y SAF-CACAO is currently following the Authoritarian Management Style . This is because they are irresponsible and dont take into account the views of their workers and the conditions they are living through. Cultural differences are also playing a major role in this because South Africa is mainly collectivist based and due t o this children are trafficked into slavery and even though this is bad they dont in reality have a choice because if they return to their parents they will probably be punished for not transport them any money.Due to the lack of education in areas around ivory coast there is a misunderstanding and unethical views on the age at which a child should work. Parents expect children to work and pay their families regardless of their capabilities and the dangers of them being kidnapped. Dealing with these issues wouldnt be possible unless us as customers boycott Nestle and other star signs that are buying chocolates from unethical companies. Buying Fair-Trade products is an alternative which we can all resort to even though it is more expensive it is at least ethical.There are many other firms that promote anti-child trafficking such as Freedom Matters , Anti-Slavery. These influence people to replace their normal purchases with fair-trade products. However there is no strict action th at anyone can take to stop child trafficking. As a manager of a firm that uses suppliers in Africa it would be wise to set main priority to fight child trafficking, first step would be to enforce the Human rights law in all the companies operations in order to make sure all the operations within the business as well as the businesses that the firm is traffic with all are following this law.Secondly monitoring the origin of cocoa will be carried out to check exactly where it is made and whether the farms are using children to harvest the crops. If this is the case then social services and the police will be notified. Another way to deal with this issue will be to final payment suppliers who operate ethically by offering them higher prices for their cocoa. These suppliers can also be monitored on a monthly basis to check if they are working under the human rights act.In majority of maturement countries it is very easy to buy someone by offering them a lot of money to do something b ad. Due to this it will only be wise for someone high in power to carry out checks on a businesss production because they will likely to be the only people that will give truthful information. Bibliography FairTrade. (2013).What is Fairtrade?. procurable http//www. fairtrade. org. uk/what_is_fairtrade/default. aspx. Last accessed initiative December 2013. Foodispower. (2013). Slavery in the Chocolate Industr. Available http//www. foodispower.org/slavery-in-the-chocolate-industry/. Last accessed 1st December 2013. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights. (1945).Preamble. Available http//www. un. org/en/documents/udhr/. Last accessed 1st December 2013. Douglas Mcgregor. (1960). Douglas Mcgregor Theory X,Y. Available http//www. businessballs. com/mcgregor. htm. Last accessed 1st December 2013. Humphrey Hawksley. (2012). Nestle failing on child labour abuse, says FLA report. Available http//www. bbc. co. uk/news/world-africa-18644870. Last accessed 1st December 2013.