Friday, May 31, 2019

Government and Politics - The Original Constitution Did Not Have Many D

Government and political relation - The Original Constitution Did Not Have legion(predicate) Democratic Traits In two world wars, Korea, Vietnam, and the Persian Gulf, Americans fought and died so that country would prevail around the world. In the minds of many Americans, America is the bastion of democracy. But how popular is America? Todays America was born with the signing of the constitution in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. There, it was determined how antiauthoritarian America would be. And every American should ask himself how democratic America was made at that constitutional convention in Philadelphia. Before pondering the extent of democracy unmatchable must determine what the term democracy means. Democracy is a means of selecting policymakers and of organizing government so that policy represents and responds to citizens preferences.ii The traditional democratic theory further explains the ideas behind democracy. The five aspects of this theory are tha t one man equals one vote, there is good voter-turnout, citizens can obtain knowledge through free speech and press, the general public controls government agenda, and an extension of each rights to all citizens.iiii From this, one could say a true democracy would submit every bill to the public for a popular vote, like the traditional townsfolk meetings of old New England where all eligible voters met to have their say in governmental agenda.iiiiii One could also say that democracy implies protection of rights and equal rights for all. Or, as Abraham Lincoln said, a democracy is government of the people, by the people, and for the people.iviv The people make the government, they have a say in the agenda, and the government governs by the peoples consent. This ... ...rm Caucus in Action, American Politics Classic and Contemporary Readings (Boston, MA Houghton Mifflin Company, 1999), 18. xvxv Roche, John P., The Founding Fathers A Reform Caucus in Action, American Politics Classic and Contemporary Readings (Boston, MA Houghton Mifflin Company, 1999), 10 & 12. xvixvi Roche, John P., The Founding Fathers A Reform Caucus in Action, American Politics Classic and Contemporary Readings (Boston, MA Houghton Mifflin Company, 1999), 14. xviixvii The Constitution of the United States of America from American Politics Classic and Contemporary Readings (Boston, MA Houghton Mifflin Company, 1999) pgs 566-572. Article I, Section 2, Clause 1. xviiixviii Rakove, Jack, A Tradition Born of Strife, American Politics Classic and Contemporary Readings (Boston, MA Houghton Mifflin Company, 1999), 6.

Thursday, May 30, 2019

Comparing Reactions to Industrialism in Frankenstein and The Communist

Reactions to Industrialism in Frankenstein and The communist Manifesto The radical changes of the nineteenth century were un comparable any the world had seen before. A sense of these changes were felt by each(prenominal) in numerous aspects not just politically, but in social and cultural means as well. When Mary Shelleys Frankenstein was published in 1831, it was clear that many general elements of the romantic era were well reflected. Similarly, Karl Marx and Frederick Engels The Communist Manifesto appeared in 1848, a time of great national political revolutions throughout Europe. While textually these diachronic nineteenth century texts have little in common, it is clear however that they both are salutary reactions to previous movements of European society. Underlying Shelleys Frankenstein are strong uses of romanticism, whereas The Communist Manifesto is undoubtedly opposing the consequences of the industrial revolution in Europe both reactions of the past, yet effective in starkly different ways. Frankenstein, like other English Romantics, placed great emphasis on the power of nature. The Arve Ravine, and the Valley of Chamounix exemplify the harmony and beautiful serenity of nature, and add to the romantic eccentric of the novel while sharply contrasting with the chaos of Victors troubled mind. The Romantic movement can be seen as a protest against the rapid industrial enterprise that was occurring in England at the time of Frankensteins publication. While many interpretations are plausible, the novel depicts the fear that technology (and the human obsession with technology) would ultimately prove disastrous. The characters of Walton and Frankenstein are wrought by Romantic idealism, as manifested in their ... ...r a classless, productive, industrial society that was beneficial to all, the mere recognition of strength in numbers and class solidarity were fundamentally effective and paved the way not only for future governments but for future laborers. Works Cited Lowe-Evans, Mary. Frankenstein Mary Shellys Wedding Guest. New York Twayne Publishers, 1993. Marx, Karl. Communist Manifesto. Birth of the Communist Manifesto. Ed. Dirk J. Struik. New York International, 1971. 85-125. Oates, Joyce Carol. Frankenstein Creation as Catastrophe. Mary Shellys Frankenstein. Ed. Harold Bloom. New York Chelsea House Publishers, 1987. Shelly, Mary. Frankenstein Or the Modern Prometheus. New York Penguin Books, 1978. Tropp, Martin. Mary Shellys Monster. Boston Houghton Mifflin, 1976.

The Most Tragic Othello :: Othello essays

The Most Tragic Othello William Shakespeare has written many plays. His most tragic play is Othello. Othello is withal the name of the main character in the play, he is quite hard to understand. In order to have a better understanding of Othellos character, examining his changes throughout the play, flaws and why he is considered a tragic hero will give the reader an insight of his overall personality. Othello changes many times throughout the course of the play. At the ascendant of the play Othello trusts Desdemona with everything, but throughout the play he loses confident in her because he listens to Iagos suggestions about her. Cassio, my lord? No, sure, I cannot think it That he would sneak international so guilty like, Seeing you come. (Shakespeare 105). He shows disrespect to Desdemona in front of other people. Devil he strikes her I have not deserved this. (141). Othello changes even more dramatically because of the poison suggestions that Iago has given him. H e goes out of control and eventually kills Desdemona thinking that she has did something wrong. Othello has many tragic flaws. He is a really gullible person, for example he was tricked by Iago thinking that Desdemona was really having an affair with Cassio. Did he confess it? (134). He trusts Iago too much and totally relies on Iago therefore making him really unguarded to Iagos evilish schemes. Othellos gullibility causes him to be jealous. He lets his jealousy take over, he looses control of himself and acts on his jealous emotions, he lets his jealousy clutter his mind and good judgment. anathemise her, lewd minx O, damn her, damn her Come go with me part. I will withdraw To furnish me with some swift means of death. For the fair devil. in a flash are the my lieutenant (122). Othellos other flaw is his anger. Othello acts upon his anger and therefore ends up doing the things he regrets afterwards. It is too late. O Lord, O Lord, Lord he smothers her(168). Theref ore by examining those points Othello has many tragic flaws in him. Othello is considered a tragic hero because he fights for the people in Venice in Cyprus. The Turk with a most mighty preparation makes for Cyprus.

Wednesday, May 29, 2019

Essay --

Budgetary shortf wholes have work a section of everyday news and a bad reality for both normal and private sectors. Negotiating a win-win scenario for all vested parties sometimes can take c atomic number 18 like an insurmountable and daunting task. In order to go bad a successful municipality, all vested parties must collaborate and be solution based. Transparency plays a huge role in establishing trust, credibility and facilitating an agreeable abolish result. Every financial organization must create a reckon. In simple terms, the budget is a plan that outlines how resources will be utilized during a specific period of time. A balanced budget chiefly translates into an organization demonstrating financial health and or responsibility, (Kennon, 2014). When the amount of goods or go exceeds the amount of tax revenue being generated, budgets then need to be revised so that they are in line. This generally means that concessions need to be made by political offici als, union groups, employees, constituents or all of the aforementioned stakeholders in the community. Due to a drop in revenue, a slight increase in contracted services and an increase in post employment expenditures for the current fiscal year, the mayor of my jurisdiction has asked all division heads to analyze, revise and submit a budget reflecting a 2% decrease in expenditures for the following year. This will allow for the government to remain answer without raising the tax rate. As the department head of the public safety division, I oversee the budgets for the jurisprudence and fire departments. This includes 44 full time police officer, 16 full time fire fighters and 10 part time fire fighters. Total yearly expense for the public safety division is $9,460,000 or 72% o... ... this would reduce the number of calls and offset the expense by 25% or $18,750. Each year the police and fire departments are involved in community outreach efforts. Costs in excess of $31,50 0 for events like the study fire safety week, national night out, crime stoppers, DARE, personal safety seminars and workshops, etcetera are typically absorbed by the public safety department and provided to the community free of charge. Being strategic as to what educational programs are offered and limiting the events to every quarter rather than monthly would save the jurisdiction approximately $7,000 p.a. without completely eliminating the programs that the community has come to expect. All told with the strategic approach to budget allocation and the carrying out of targeted increases for those who violate the law, the proposed savings is $190,250. Essay -- Budgetary shortfalls have become a part of everyday news and a grim reality for both public and private sectors. Negotiating a win-win scenario for all vested parties sometimes can seem like an insurmountable and daunting task. In order to run a successful municipality, all vested parties must collabor ate and be solution based. Transparency plays a huge role in establishing trust, credibility and facilitating an agreeable end result. Every financial organization must create a budget. In simple terms, the budget is a plan that outlines how resources will be utilized during a specific period of time. A balanced budget generally translates into an organization demonstrating financial health and or responsibility, (Kennon, 2014). When the amount of goods or services exceeds the amount of revenue being generated, budgets then need to be revised so that they are in line. This generally means that concessions need to be made by governmental officials, union groups, employees, constituents or all of the aforementioned stakeholders in the community. Due to a drop in revenue, a slight increase in contracted services and an increase in post employment expenditures for the current fiscal year, the mayor of my jurisdiction has asked all department heads to analyze, revise and submit a budget reflecting a 2% decrease in expenditures for the following year. This will allow for the government to remain solvent without raising the tax rate. As the department head of the public safety division, I oversee the budgets for the police and fire departments. This includes 44 full time police officer, 16 full time fire fighters and 10 part time fire fighters. Total yearly expense for the public safety division is $9,460,000 or 72% o... ... this would reduce the number of calls and offset the expense by 25% or $18,750. Each year the police and fire departments are involved in community outreach efforts. Costs in excess of $31,500 for events like the national fire safety week, national night out, crime stoppers, DARE, personal safety seminars and workshops, etcetera are typically absorbed by the public safety department and provided to the community free of charge. Being strategic as to what educational programs are offered and limiting the events to quarterly rather t han monthly would save the jurisdiction approximately $7,000 annually without completely eliminating the programs that the community has come to expect. All told with the strategic approach to budget allocation and the implementation of targeted increases for those who violate the law, the proposed savings is $190,250.

Essay --

Jessicas paper rough draft (Into) Some pain cant always be seen, what if a patient complains of sharp knife pains and describes it as being stung by a thousand bees all at once, and at the same time feels like their foot is on fire. Maybe the foot is swollen or discolored. Pain is not always visable. Sounds like classic nerve pain and we would be sypathic and prescribe pain pull strings medications. Would you be less sympathetic and unwilling to give pain medications if you knew this patient had a history of substance affront? Its time to break the stigma that patients with a history of substance abuse will abuse perscription opioids for pain control or are Dr. shopping. All patients should be set equaly and have the oppertunity to live a pain free life. Often nurses are on the front lines helping these patients manage pain. This paper will show that non Judgmental attitudes together with pr oblem solving approaches and routine drug screenings a patient with prior abuse can be treated for degenerative pain successfully. (Relevance and applicability) Most patients do take their medications as directed, but there has been more attention in the media of the abuse of perscription medications. This is in part of the ageing population and opioids being widely accepted and used more often these days for the chronic non cancer pain paitent (1pg1) Although Studies show that the rate abuse of opioid patients with chronic pain is only 3% to 17% which is fairly first base compared to the population. (Art1 pg32) The reason some paitents abuse opioids or turn to the illicit use of street drugs is t... ... vigilance in monitoring and may need to be treated for opioid abuse and or pshycatric help. (Conclusion)As opioids are becoming more acceptable as an on going treatment for chroni c pain patients, the risks also rises for abuse of prescription drugs. For these reasons its not only just limited to those patients with substance abuse issues, but also to patients without prior abuse histories. A cancer patient who has no prior substance abuse history should not be treated any more humanly or shown more compassion then a cancer patient with a prior substance abuse issue. Its important to achieve a therapeutic balance with all patients and specially those who live with chronic pain. With all the readily available studies, tests and assessments no one should have to live a half life with chronic pain Regardless of their history.

Tuesday, May 28, 2019

The Role of the Inspector in An Inspector Calls Essay examples -- An I

The Role of the Inspector in An Inspector CallsAn Inspector Calls is a play with m some(prenominal) social and political messages. J. B. Priestley believed a great deal in socialism and he used several of his plays to try and influence people to be Socialist as well. It was written in a time when Britain was rule by a Labour government and socialist policies were seen as the way forward. It was a popular way of thinking at that time so Priestleys draw for the play was probably to teach the unconvinced. The Inspector in J. B. Priestleys An Inspector Calls is one of the most thought-provoking and rich characters that modern day literature has yet produced. It is this mysterious element that contributes greatly to making him a very interesting character and one that may be perceived in many ways. The audience does not find a great deal out about the Inspector and nothing is explicitly told to us we are given hints and clues from the way he acts and what he says and are forced to pie ce these together to form our own ideas about his identity and his intentions. In this way, Priestley has asked his audience to act as a judge and to collapse personal conclusions about him. The role of the Inspector is one of many levels. In terms of how he is used in the basic structure of the play, he is in that respect to move the play along in that he encourages the characters to tell their stories. If there was not the revelation that he was not a real Police Inspector, he would only be considered as a narrator and not play a big part in the play. Because it transpired that he was an impostor of sorts, further questions are asked by the audience and different insights have become likely and it is clear that the Inspector is in the play for many reasons. T... ...e unpunished. One must conclude that the Inspectors principal(prenominal) purpose is to teach. In the context of the play, he told the characters what had happened to a particular girl because they had each been gui lty of selfishness. In regards to the whole of society, he voiced Priestleys opinions that we cannot make any progress if we do not work together. In my opinion, those watching or reading the play today would not gain as much from the tommyrot in regards to the moral teachings because most have now accepted the advantages of Socialism over Capitalism and so do not have as much to learn on the arguments of this issue as the audiences of 1947. In regards to the question of what the Inspector actually was, I personally feel that there is not enough say given for even a strong, fact-supported theory to be produced to answer the question, let alone an infallible answer.

The Role of the Inspector in An Inspector Calls Essay examples -- An I

The Role of the quizzer in An Inspector CallsAn Inspector Calls is a nobble with many social and political messages. J. B. Priestley believed a great deal in socialism and he used several of his plays to try and influence people to be Socialist as well. It was written in a time when Britain was ruled by a Labour g all overnment and socialist policies were seen as the way forward. It was a popular way of thinking at that time so Priestleys aim for the play was probably to t all(prenominal) the unconvinced. The Inspector in J. B. Priestleys An Inspector Calls is wizard of the near thought-provoking and mysterious characters that modern day literature has yet produced. It is this mysterious element that contributes greatly to making him a very interesting character and one that may be perceived in many ways. The audience does not find a great deal out about the Inspector and postal code is explicitly told to us we are given hints and clues from the way he acts and what he says and a re forced to piece these together to form our own ideas about his identicalness and his intentions. In this way, Priestley has asked his audience to act as a judge and to reach personal conclusions about him. The role of the Inspector is one of many levels. In hurt of how he is used in the basic structure of the play, he is there to move the play along in that he encourages the characters to tell their stories. If there was not the revelation that he was not a real Police Inspector, he would only be considered as a narrator and not play a big part in the play. Because it transpired that he was an impostor of sorts, further questions are asked by the audience and different insights have become likely and it is clear that the Inspector is in the play for many reasons. T... ...e unpunished. One must conclude that the Inspectors main purpose is to teach. In the context of the play, he told the characters what had happened to a particular girl because they had each been guilty of self ishness. In regards to the whole of society, he voiced Priestleys opinions that we cannot make any progress if we do not work together. In my opinion, those watching or indication the play today would not gain as much from the story in regards to the moral teachings because most have now accepted the advantages of Socialism over Capitalism and so do not have as much to learn on the arguments of this issue as the audiences of 1947. In regards to the question of what the Inspector really was, I personally feel that there is not enough evidence given for even a strong, fact-supported theory to be produced to answer the question, let alone an infallible answer.

Monday, May 27, 2019

The Italian peninsula

The Italian peninsula started off consisting and inhabited by a mixture of different social groups, which includes the Sabines, Umbrians, Oscans and Latins. The Etruscans came from the sea from Lydia setting foot on North Eastern and Central Italy. They allied themselves with the Carthaginians, increasing their influence and conquering an enormous region of the Italian peninsula. Etruscan grease was composed of independent and separate city states that never came to form a unified Etruscan state and that absence of national identity brought the Etruscan dominance over the Italian peninsula to an end.The Greeks, on the other hand, settled over South Western Italy and the island of Sicily. The Greeks of Italy were engaged in primarily in commerce, thus pressure from adjacent civilizations had suppressed territorial expansion. The settlements being far off from Greek military influence and the lack of unification among these colonies, similarly as the Etruscan confederacies, had less ened their grip of the Italian territory. Near the borders of Etruscan influence, capital of Italy was built in 753 BC as a city of Italic peoples living south of the Tiber.Rome was controlled by an absolute monarch, his rule checked and equilibrate by a council of elders, which was the Senate. However, during the 6th century, the Etruscans extended its control over Rome to suppress its development and established Etruscan monarchs as kings of Rome. Finally, in 509 BC, the Romans expelled the last Etruscan kings and started their conquest of Italy. Romans instal themselves allied with the Greeks and other Latin tribes, although wielding supremacy over them, driving away the Etruscans from the Italian peninsula.However, the Latins resented the Romans hegemony over them and revolted against them, although the Romans dismantled them and took control over Latium. The Romans seized the rest of Italy through freehanded and militaristic policies. The Romans cunningness in collaborating with native rulers and granting certain rights to citizens of cities that they have conquered enabled them to take control of Italy without encountering united opposition.

Sunday, May 26, 2019

Nordstrom Case Analysis Essay

Former Nordstrom employees accuse them of using unfair labor and invidious practices to intimidate employees and force them to perform tasks like stocking and picking up merchandise during non- realizeing hours . Nordstrom employees receive little formal training when hired or promoted to new positions, and they be judge to perform their duties consistent with the Nordstrom Way which is client service above and beyond the call of duty. Training is informally provided through on-the-job communication, which increases the prospect for miscommunication.This communication can be deliberate due to peer competition and pressures to succeed from managers, or lack of knowledge by co-workers and managers from whom they atomic number 18 encouraged to sample training. Management skills are not required to manage employees, nor is training provided to employees who achieve management positions. There is no real evaluation system in rear to measure employee performance. There is no goal setting process that requires manager employee pair sets benchmarks for measuring progress, particularly when the employee is new in the role (Harvard Business tutor Press, 2007).Goals help to define what managers expect from their employees. The only employee metric used that is measurable is Sales per Hours (SPH) even-though there are other performance criteria such as customer service and teamwork which are part of the employee evaluation process. Employees who do not achieve the minimal required SPH are categorized as under-performers. If SPH is consistently below the minimum standard set by the department manager, this can lead to termination or isolation as employees tonicity uncomfortable and inadequate.Upon being hired by Nordstrom employees are told that the three Nordstrom performance criteria customer service, productivity and teamwork (Buller, Paul F. and Schuler, Randall S. , 2003) are needed to be promoted. However employees are not advised as to how the criteria pass on be evaluated. The only evaluation employees receive is from their manager, there is no secondary layer of management to review the employee performance evaluation to encounter fairness. Nordstrom does not confound a formal company-wide evaluation form, therefore there is no consistency in the evaluation process.The evaluation technique is different for distributively manager, making it effortful to compare employee performance across the different functional areas in the company. Employees performing tasks not directly related to merchandise sale, are not compensated for hours worked. empirical learning was used to encourage employees to work non-selling hours off the clock If one employee is donating a lot of time it forces others to do the same (Buller, Paul F. and Schuler, Randall S. , 2003). Employees are agonistic to adhere to the informal organizational culture or they are not considered team players.Nordstrom should establish formal and consistent Standard Opera ting Procedures, to which their employees can stamping ground to for guidance. Managers should be required to attend training programs. This would enable managers to provide their employees with formal training base on the companys policies and procedures. Formal training on with on-the-job training would help to alleviate some of the obstacles faced by current or new employees who are promoted to new positions within the organization.Employees should be provided with hand throws and/or training materials that specifically outlines how performance criteria go out be measured and evaluated. Managers and employees need to establish goals and ways to achieving them. They should meet on an on-going basis to discuss employee progress for each performance criteria. Nordstrom has used their decentralized management approach to build a very flourishing and profitable retail empire. They encourage entrepreneurial opportunities among their employees.New employees are given business cards and encouraged to build relationships with their customers, by creating personal thank you letters, and keeping records of merchandise they sell. They are also encouraged to develop a solid customer base. Nordstrom allow employees to be involved in the decision making process, by not restricting them with lots of rules, for instance Nordstrom replaced its 20-page rule book with a one-page sheet and few words of wisdom Use your best judgment in all situations (Buller, Paul F. nd Schuler, Randall S. , 2003). This allows employees to do whatever it takes to ensure their customers are satisfied. Self-motivation courses are offered to both employees and managers with emphasis on setting daily accomplishments. Employees are allowed to set their own personal goals and the pace at which they achieve those goals.For voice one employee stated the first year I consciously set quarterly goals to achieve the Pacesetter requirementand closely monitored my progress (Buller, Paul F. and Schuler, R andall S. 2003). Employees are given the flexibility to essentially manage themselves and track their own progress with one objective keep gross sales per hour high relative to hours worked. Employees are duly compensated for their hard work and dedication Nordstrom employees earn some of the highest salaries in the retail business (Buller, Paul F. and Schuler, Randall S. , 2003). They also encourage hard work by promoting from within which motivates employees to work hard as a promotion could lead to a higher salary and other incentives.Nordstrom uses positive reinforcements by providing confused incentives to employees to encourage them to achieve high SPH, for example free dinners, cash rewards and lay in discounts. Employees who achieve the highest sales are recognized by having their picture displayed in the inject and also having their names broadcast over the stores loudspeaker system. Employees can track how they are performing in relation to their peers on a regular bas is, as SPH figures are displayed for all to see via charts and electronic printouts.The problem arose because Nordstrom did not have any formal company policies which are necessary in order to establish required behavior from individual employees. Employee expectations were not explicitly communicated and expectations were established by managers without employee involvement. Managers did not take the time to find out what employees moot of the proposed expectations (Harvard Business School Press, 2007). Their only focus was ensuring that Sales per Hour (SPH) remained high, employee development was not important to managers.Nordstroms hiring policy requires employees to be innate Nordies. Nordies are nice, motivated, gumptious.. self-empowered people who have an entrepreneurial spirit (Buller, Paul F. and Schuler, Randall S. , 2003). Employees and managers never collaborate to set individual goals, instead goals were set by departmental managers or store managers, but employees a re still expected to achieve goals. Outstanding performance was expected from all employees even-though goals were not individually tailored.Employees who regularly had trouble meeting sales quotas or coping with pressure to improve performance were dismissed (Buller, Paul F. and Schuler, Randall S. , 2003). Steep negative consequences were suffered by employees that did not perform up to par with their peers. oscilloscope individual employee goals and ways to achieve them will yield the most desired result in the long term. By providing formal training to employees, and explicitly stating what is expected from the employee, will result in more productivity from employees in the long run and reduce the companys turn-over rate.This will also reduce the terms for hiring new employees, as replacing employees cost one and a half times the current employee salary to hire a new employee, therefore conservation Nordstrom money in the long term. On-going review of employee progress will help to level the playing field and relieve some of the pressures and intimidation some employees feel working at Nordstrom. Formal training of employees is both costly and time consuming. The time spent training employees lowers SPH as this time would be considered non-selling hours.Employees who are successful under the current system might resist changes. Employees might not have the educational capacity to learn new techniques. Employee training is the best option, and will yield the most desired long term results. Develop and roll out a company-wide Standard Operating Procedure handbook using input signal from outside sources in order to achieve desired results. Develop a company-wide evaluation form enabling standardization of the way employees are evaluated by managers. rank out on-the-job training for all employees, ensuring that all employees understand how to perform their job functions. Provide employees with written job descriptions. Establish consistent company-wide go als. Goals can then be tailored for each department. Collaborate with each employee to establish how the goals will be achieved and the milestone dates for achieving those goals. Establish a specific time frame for reviewing employee goals. sally employee feedback on an on-going basis.

Saturday, May 25, 2019

Explain the Sequence and Rate of Each Aspect of Development That Would Normally Be Expected in Children and Young People from Birth to 19 Years Old?

Name Mickala Date of Plan 27. 03. 13 Assessor Shahnaz Scully Qualification Level 5 Diploma Management Pathway Units Assessment & Feedback Plan hello Mickala MU5. This plan will guide you through this unit which I am sure will expand on your existing knowledge and Understand children and reasonableness of how children and youth people develop between the ages of birth to 19 years. Within this youthfulness persons ontogenyunit you will also be looking the actions you should take if there are differences, and also what the potential effects of transitions could be on childrens development. This is a knowledge based unit and therefore I suggest that you use a variety of research material so that you are able to address the perspicacity criteria for this unit. A good beginning point will be the LASER lessons which include activities and suitable reading material if you wish to reinforce your learning and to gain extra knowledge. Explain the episode a nd rate of each aspect of development that would normally be expected in children and young people from birth -19years. (chart attached) Explain different theories (for example cognitive, sychoanalytic, humanist, genial learning, operant conditioning, and behaviourist) and frameworks including social pedagogy that deport the development of MU52. 11 children and young people. MU53. 11 Explain the potential impact on your provision of different theories, approaches and frameworks and how they mold current practice.Give examples please of how these are used in your setting. MU53. 12 Critically analyse the move towards outcome based services for children and young people. MU53. 13 consider the difference between sequence of development and rate of development and why the distinction is important. Analyse the reasons why children and young peoples development whitethorn not follow the pattern normally expected. Analyse how children and young peoples development is influenced by a range of face-to-face factors which include wellness status, disability, sensory impairment and learning difficulties. Analyse how children and young peoples development is influenced by a range of external factors including poverty and deprivation, family environment and background, personal choices, looked after/care status and education Analyse the importance of early identification of development delay MU52. 23 Explain the potential risks of late realization of development delay. Can you give any examples from your practice? Evaluate how multi agency teams work together to support all aspect of development in children and young people. Again if you have had any experience of this please use it in your evidence Explain how play and leisure activities can be used to support all aspects of development of children and MU52. 12 young people.Please give examples from your setting. Explain how different types of transitions can affect children and young peoples development. Again please write about how you deal with transitions in your setting to add to your evidence. MU52. 13 Explain the importance of children and young people having positive relationships through periods of transition. Evaluate the effectiveness of positive relationships on children and young peoples development MU52. 21 Explain different methods of assessing, recording and monitoring children and young peoples development. The methods include assessment frameworks, observation, standard measurements and information from carers and colleagues. MU52. 2 Explain how and in what circumstances different methods are used for assessing, recording and monitoring children and young peoples development in the work setting. Please include as many different methods as you can. MU52. 31 Explain how different types of interventions can promote positive outcomes for children and young people whe re development is not following the pattern normally expected. Evaluate the importance of accurate documentation regarding the development of children and young people MU52. 32 endurance date 15. 04. 13 Best wishes, MU52. 3 Shahnaz 07920 427 284 MU52. 34 MU52. 41 MU52. 2 MU52. 43 MU52. 1 MU52. 52 MU52. 53 MU52. 54

Thursday, May 23, 2019

Malthus and Boserup Population Theory

MALTHUS AND BOSERUP The world existence is the total number of living humans on the planet Earth. recently the world has just hit over 7 billion people. It is expected that if the worlds population continues to increase at the rate it is doing now, then we will become overpopulated. Overpopulation is where an organisms song exceed the carrying capacity of its habitat. There be various views on this population crisis and throughout this essay I will describe theses views. Thomas Malthus was a pessimist , his surmise is that the growth of human populations always tends to outstrip the productive capabilities of land resources.The result is that resources place a restriction on population growth and size and overconfident checks (famine and disease) or preventative checks (limitation of family size) work to compact population growth. Writing out front the countrified revolution, Malthus presumed that the productivity of resources were permanent because agricultural technology w as largely fixed. From a Malthusian perspective, technology and environment (considered in terms of land resources) are thitherfore seen as independent variables that work together to determine the dependant variable of population, which he sees mainly in terms of population growth and size.According to him, human society could never be perfected. He cogitated that man is a lazy animal, who would lead a satisfied life and procreate as long as his family was well fed. However, as soon as human population would feel constraints in pabulum supply due to increase in population, he would again work hard to provide enough for his family. This might lead to an increase in agricultural intersection to provide for all, but at the same time man would be back to his complacent stage, where all his needs would be fulfilled. This would start the troll of overpopulation and food shortage, all over again.Having been a clergy, Malthus validated his theory on moral grounds that suffering was a w ay of making human beings draw the virtues of hard work and moral behavior. Such kind of suffering due to overpopulation and food supply was inevitable. Malthus theory had great influence on both Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace, who are the co-founders of the modern evolutionary theory. By the end of the 19th Century, when living standards improved and birth rates dropped in the Western countries, concerns of overpopulation became irrelevant.However, in underdeveloped countries which have farming(prenominal) economies, Malthus theory often finds credibility. On the other hand, Ester Boserup was an optimist. Her theory focuses on the relationships between three factors population, environment and technology. Her concept of population in contrast to Malthus, encompasses population immersion as well as population size and growth. Ester Boserup stated that an increase in population would stimulate technologists to increase food production.As Boserup said any establish in populatio n would increase demand for food and this would act as an incentive to change agrarian technology and produce more food. whence population growth will inspire innovators who will solve the problem s the increasing population has caused therefore making it sustainable for a growing population. dismantle though they are two opposing theories they do have some similarities. They are both based on closed communities which at a orbicular scale is not true. They are similar by the way they both agree that an rise in population will increase demand for food.However they all told differ on what the consequences will be. As Malthus says increased demand for food will eventually cause food production to decrease due to the police force of diminishing returns. As Boserup has a completely opposing view that increased population would increase food production. We have to remember that Malthus wrote his essay in 1798 before the agriculture revolution therefore he excluded technology from his theory therefore making it slightly inaccurate. As Boserup wrote her theory in 1968 and has seen the effect technology brook have crop yield therefore the two theories contrast.Also Mathus and Boserup disagree on the outcomes of increased population as Malthus stated that population cant increase supra the food supplies otherwise positive checks would occur. Malthus talks about controlling a population by preventative checks and how the population must be kept down the stairs the crisis point otherwise these positive checks will occur. In contrast Boserup does the opposite and stated that famine and war will be prevented by human solutions. Therefore the two theories have different answers as to how to make a sustainable population which will survive in food resources.I personally agree with Malthus and believe that the power of population is much greater than the power of the earth to provide subsistence for man although Boserup states that an increase in population would stimul ate technologists to increase food production etc. There is only a limit of resources available that can be used and the use of new technology and manufacturing is a massive subscriber to the green house effect. Also we cannot rely on an increases in population to stimulate people to find new ways so that we can outlive sustainably.Some people may argue that positive checks are meant to happen. I dont believe in parts of this theory however if we can reduce the population to a sustainable level then these positive checks will not have to take place. We can reduce positive checks by promote people to have fewer children however this has been taken a bit too far in some areas, for example Chinas One Child Policy. Although this was a massive success in reducing the population, there are also problems that China is now faced with including gender imbalance (for every 6 males there are 5 females) and an ageing population.

Wednesday, May 22, 2019

Why Hitler’s Actions, the Treaty of Versailles and the Policy Appeasement Contributed to the Outbreak of War in Sept?

The Policy appeasement contributed to the outbreak of fight in sept. 1939 because by appeasing Hitler Britain and France gave him the confidence to believe he could ask for anything he wanted. This only reinforced what theyd already shown him, which was they wouldnt take action if he wanted him broke the pact, such as when he took over otherwise parts of Europe, such as Sudetenland in 1938 and reoccupying the Rhineland.This made him stronger and to a greater extent powerful, which made him more likely to start a war because he thought he was more likely to win or for Britain and France not to react in the first place because even though they said that theyd start war if he attacked Poland, he didnt believe they would. So he invaded and WW2 broke out as promised. Appeasement couldnt ever of stopped Hitler it merely suspend war, which made war more likely in sept. 1939 because it gave Britain and France more time to re-arm which meant they were more likely to declare a war they coul d actu whollyy win.The accordance of Versailles contributed to the outbreak of war in sept. 1939 because they were overly harsh towards Germany which effected every aspect of life in the country which left the population angry and vengeful. This study to Hitlers uprising because he promised to abolish the treaty and get Germany back on its feet, which meant in 1933 he had the power to put in motion his plans for Germany that would impart to War. He Joined with Austria, rearmed and reoccupied the Rhineland, this not only went against the treaty it also made Germany stronger and more ready for War.The treaty of Versailles also contributed to war in sept. 1939 because it made Britain and France more likely to follow the above appeasement policy. Many people after WW1 was fully over started to believe the treaty was way too harsh on Germany, this meant Britain and France felt Germany deserved the land. Which in turn made Germany stronger because of the mineral resources such as Iron and Coal Hitler could use to fuel his military and country as a hole and also meant more men to fight on Germanys side. Which made war more likely as Germany would be stronger and therefore Hitler would be more likely to start a fight.Hitlers actions lead to War in Sept. 1939 because he was an aggressive dictator with clear aims to abolish the treaty, get Germany an pudding stone and unit German speakers. In other words make Germany great again. He also wanted to re-arm which would allow him to both break the treaty and expand because he knew other countries werent just going to let him walk in and take over, he expected a fight, and so he needed arms. This would also achieve his other aim to create Lebensraum that was living space for German people.These aims lead him to invade Czechoslovakia and Poland, which lead to War in sept. 1939 when theyre allies came to help. Without Hitlers drive to meet his aims the War might not of happened at all. Another way in which Hitlers actions contributed to war in Sept. 1939 was because his aims appealed to the German public. He promised a new Germany, better, stronger, without the treaty. Germany were in an economic depression theyd do anything to get out of, this meant they were open to Hitlers aggressive nature, and this helped ask him to power in 1933.If Hitler wasnt in power he couldnt of carried out his actions. In conclusion all three contributed to the war but they all worked together. The treaty of Versailles made Germany want revenge, which lead to Hitlers popularity because he promised to abolish it, which lead to him gaining power, which meant he could carry out his plans, so Britain and France either had to appease him or start a war. In the end they did both, but by appeasing him first they also made war more likely because it encouraged Hitlers confidence, so he felt more comfortable taking bigger and bigger risks.

Research Study Proposal: Obesity in school-age Essay

According to the marrow squash for Disease Control and Prevention (2015), Obesity in school-age children has increased over the past thirty years to the amount of image in some and even quadrupling in others. CDC statistics showed in 2012, at least unity-third of the school children were large or obese. Childhood obesity continues to be a growing problem in the United States. School lunches play a significant role in the obesity issues facing children right away. The school menus of today contain too many calories from simple carbohydrates and fat. Starchy vegetables instead of green leafy vegetables are served along with food containing sodium levels higher than needed for ones daily intake. Childhood obesity can lead to health issues if action is not taken rapidly. This paper will provide a picture summary of the issues of childhood obesity and focus on the role the school lunch meals play on this growing crisis.Obesity is defined by the CDC (2015) as an individual that has ex tra body fat in relationship to ones height. An easier way to understand obesity is the individual is taking in more than calories than is being used. The health effects of childhood obesity have both short-term or immediate and long-term health effects. Health issues obtained later in life are believed to be linked to childhood obesity. Obese children have a greater chance of growing up to become adults with health issues much(prenominal) as heart disease, hypertension, high cholesterol and strokes. Additionally, these individuals are predisposed to diabetes type 2 and many forms of cancer.Prevention of obesity in children diabetes is the best solution to the problem. The U.S. operating surgeon General has identified the obesity epidemic as one of the greatest health problems facing the nation today ( study Association of State Boards of Education, 2004, para 2). In 2010, the Lets Move campaign was implemented encouraging children to get up and move around, or exercise and schoo l lunches were to become healthier. MichelleObama was quoted in an clause called, First Lady Michelle Obama Quotes on Child Obesity and Health Over the past five years, we have truly changed the culture around healthy take and living in this country (Holecko, 2015, para 4).Childhood obesity remains an epidemic health issue the school lunches remain an issue to be researched.ReferenceCenter for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), (2015). Childhood obesity facts. Retrieved from http// Holecko, C., (2015). First Lady Michelle Obama Quotes on Child Obesity and Health . Retrieved from http// od/childhoodobesity /a/michelle_obama_obesity.htm National Association of State Boards of Education, (2004). The role of schools in preventing childhood obesity. Retrieved from http// pdf/roleofschools_obesity.pdf

Tuesday, May 21, 2019

Overpopulation causes Essay

Overpopulation has become a knotting question that both developing countries and industrialized ones have to cope up. This phenomenon leads to around impacts on society namely the unemployment condition and the poverty, which requires an exact policy such as birthrate supremacy from the authority. My essay will illustrate the items mentioned above in details.To begin with, the unemployment occurs to all countries in the world with no exception. The root of this situation is the universal increase in inhabitants, of which the number is rising everyday. It results in the fact that in that location is not enough occupation for people at the working ages. For instance, thousands of students graduate from universities and colleges annually. Yet, the va assholecies in companies and offices are limited, which does not come to labours expectations.The managers can not accept so many employees at the resembling time and certainly, the rest of these applicants will be out of work.Following this, poverty is an indispensable issue as well. This mainly takes place in some areas of the nation. It is the consequence of lack of supply for daily life. Admittedly, a family which has to a greater extent than five members contributes a awkwardy to public. To illustrate, the leaders of a family are parents, whose jobs are official workers. When the income they take is also low, there are a lot of expenses like bills, schooling fees for children and food they have to pay..And due to this, they can not afford all.To overcome the overpopulation, governments have found some effective strategies, one of which is family planning. this policy has been drift into practice for many years and shown a turnaround. Its primary content is helping the couple plan having children by using birth control.In conclusion, although the growth of population is continuing, we can expect an optimistic future give thanks to the efforts all the governments have made. Once we find the right way to red uce the bad influence of overpopulation, our difficult problems will soon be resolved.

Monday, May 20, 2019

Macy’s Inc Case Essay

Analyze the publicly-traded house Macys Inc. you are to complete a financial analysis. Complete the following steps for this portion of the chuck 1. Obtain financial information for your fast(a) for at least a 5 (2008-2012) year sequence period. This information should include income statements, balance sheets, cash-flow statements. 2. Provide a brief history of the firm You will gather up to do background reading about the firm in order to gain insight into its cognitive process and behavior. Focus this section on the who, when, where and what questions about your firms history. 3. Complete financial measures of the firm for a multi-year time period (e.g. 5 years).This should include all measures concerning the income statement, balance sheet, and cash-flow statements. 4. Analysis of the financial exercise of the firm. one time all financial measures read been determined, an analysis of this information is crucial to understanding how well the firm is playing and its curre nt state of operations. There will be two components to this analysis a. End-Point Analysis Using the end-point methodological analysis described in the document in the Reference Module of the Content Section of the course, compare the firms current financial performance to its financial performance in the beginning time frame.Describe, discuss, and study the changes you observe. b. Industry Comparison Obtain current industry data on the various financial measures you have determined for the firm. Compare the performance of the firm to the industry and describe/discuss your results. 5. Summarize your findings. Based on the financial analysis you have just completed, summarize your findings and draw conclusions about the changes in the financial performance/structure of the firm over time and about the current strengths of its operations.

Sunday, May 19, 2019

Daubert V. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals

Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals Brandon Pond modern England Institute of Technology Case Studies in Criminal Forensics CJ 372. 57 Professor Michael Pezzullo October 24, 2012 Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals The 1993 compulsive courtyard aspect of Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, like many high-profile court cases, conform a precedent for future court causes of a similar background. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals was a pharmaceutical company found out of Kansas City, Missouri which was founded in 1950.Origin every(prenominal)y named Marion Laboratories after its founder Ewing Marion Kauffman, Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals specifically developed pharmaceuticals that had yet to be marketed by other pharmaceutical companies after being discovered and researched. As a result, Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals are computer addressed for producing several(prenominal) high-quality and extremely popular drugs even in ultramodern day, including the Nicorette anti-smoking gum a nd Cepacol mouthwash.However, in an attempt to receive credit for popular and effective pharmaceutical production over other companies, Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals earned a reputation of producing drugs without commensurate research of potential side-effects. As a result, Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals were I involved in an extremely high-profile U. S. Supreme Court case, titled Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals. This 1993 court case put pressure on the pharmaceutical company to close their doors and fail the company just three years later in 1996. Jason Daubert and Eric Schuller were both born in San Diego, calcium with visible physical defects.At birth, Daubert was missing three fingers on his right hand and was missing a atomic number 76 in the lower part of his right arm. Schuller was born without a left hand and a wooden leg which was shorter than the other. In 1993, Daubert and Schuller, along with their parents, elected to sue Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, the manufacture r of the drug Bendectin, an anti-nausea medication both the boys mothers were prescribed and consumed during their pregnancies. Bendectin had been already removed from the market in 1983 after numerous claims that the medication ad caused birth defects in children. in spite of the claims that the drug had caused birth defects in a number of children, scientific research behind Bendectin showed no present that the drug is interview produced birth defects in fetuses. The case was taken to a California realm court, where it was at last moved to a Federal Court following a successful motion of diversity, ultimately subject matter if a party in a case is established in a state differing from the state where the trial is being hear, the trial can be upgraded to a federal court.At the federal court trial, Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals presented an technological retrieve, Dr. Lamm, who provided his opinion tht Bendectin has no proven components that are consistent with cause birth de fects in humans. Following the unspoiled witness presentation, Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals filed a motion for abstract judgment, stating that following their presentation of a certified apt witness that verbalize Bendectin does non baffle components which produce birth defects, there was no longer a necessary for continuation of the trial.Schuller and Daubert, however, submitted a total of eight expert witnesses of their own possessing various accreditation and credentials, stating that Bendectin indeed had the potential of causing birth defects in humans. The eight expert witnesses expressed their opinions based upon a scientific study regarding in-vitro and in-vivo techniques during wildcat studies. During the time in which the case was heard in 1993, in-vitro and in-vivo animal testing was not recognized as a legitimate methodology that had not yet been established as common practice inwardly the scientific community.As a result, the expert witnesses presented by Schulle r and Daubert were deemed in allowable in court, and Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals motion for thick judgment was approved at the district court level. Daubert then appealed their case to the appellate court at the 9th turn court of appeals, re-introducing their expert witnesses opinion that Bendectin indeed can cause birth defects, backing their opinions with in-vitro and in-vivo research. The 9th dress circle court determined that the district court had correctly approved Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals motion for summary judgement, using the 1923 U. S.Supreme Court Case Frye v. United States as their basis for their decision. Frye v. Unites States dealt with the inadmissibility of a blood-pressure lie-detection method into court proceedings because it had not yet become generally accepted as a reliable scientific practice. In addition, the 9th circuit stated that it was the courts opinion that the order in which Daubert and Schuller were presenting was designated for litigation, an d without their presentation of expert witnesses, Daubert and Schuller had no comfortable evidence to prove that the Bendectin drug indeed can cause birth defects in humans.The 9th circuit court upheld the U. S. district courts decision, but filed a motion of certiorari to the U. S. Supreme Court, anticipating the higher(prenominal) court to review their decision on the case, a motion the U. S. Supreme Court ultimately concur to hear. At the U. S. Supreme Court, the court determined that general acceptance is not a justified specification of the admission of scientific evidence into court. According to the Federal Rules of Evidence, there is no requirement that specifically stated that scientific evidence has to have a general acceptance in order to be admissible into court.In particular, Rule 702 of the Federal Rules of Evidence states that the judge during the trial has the discretion to determine whether or not an expert witnesses testimony is based upon a reliable induction and is relevant to the line of work at hand. The Supreme Court also determined that any evidence with scientifically valid principles will be sufficient to fulfill the two aforementioned requirements. Ultimately, the U. S. Supreme Court overturned the decision of the 9th circuit court of appeals, and eliminated Frye v.United States from discriminatory review practices during determination of evidence admissibility. After having the case reintroduced into the lower court, the lower court again sided with Merrell lyric Pharmaceuticals, determining that there was no sufficient evidence that the use of in-vitro and in-vivo research methods fulfilled the task-relevancy and reliable foundation requirements. Despite the ruling, the Rule 702 of the Federal Rules of Evidence, currently known as the Daubert seek, has fully replaced the Frye tally in all evidence admissibility review cases.Overall, the Daubert v. Merrell Row Pharmaceuticals case has played an overwhelmingly significant ro le in modern day Criminal Justice and the way court proceedings are carried out. This case is responsible for single-handed changing the landscape in which evidence is analyzed for admissibility. Prior to this case, evidence admissibility was based around a U. S. Supreme Court case that was decided way back in 1923, 70 years front to the Daubert case. The Frye Test had simply lost its base in modern day Criminal Justice, and the Daubert Test rovides justices at bottom a court setting to have the overall determination of whether evidence fulfills two simple requirements. As more and more cases are presented into criminal courts, and more technological advances are produced, statutes, laws, and precedents need to change to acknowledge for the new technology. In this instance, the Frye Test surrounded a blood-pressure style lie-detection test, technology that was so move and abstruse that it hadnt even been considered an accepted scientific practice.In modern day, there are even m ore advanced forms of lie-detection software that individuals involved in the Frye v. United States case could not even imagine. There is no question that there needs to be some sort of decisive test to determine what types of evidence should be admitted into court proceedings, and what types of evidence should be excluded. Not all evidence can be included, because there would be no way of determining the credibility of the evidence being introduced into court.It would simply not be beauteous to a defendant at trial to be incriminated using evidence that isnt proven to be sufficient, and would not otherwise pass some sort of evidence admissibility test. By using the Daubdert admissibility test, however, it provides judges take a trial proceeding to have the overall determination of whether or not evidence fulfills the Daubert Test. The Daubert Test states that evidence must both have scientifically valid principles and must be relevant to the task at hand.This may sound like a pro ductive test for all evidence. I agree that the Daubert Test is indeed a good test, though only to some degree. One of the justices that heard the Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals case at the U. S. Supreme Court level admitted that while he understood his ability to have the overall determination of all evidence admissibility in the case, the magnitude of scientific advancements involved in the case was certainly out of his expertise, as well as the other justices within the U. S. Supreme Court.I do not looking at it is right to put evidence admissibility into the hands of justices whom have a expertise in statutory practices and the judicial system, rather than bimolecular engineering, pharmaceuticals, or any other scientific field. However, with that said, I do feel that the Daubert Test is certainly a step in the right direction. I firmly believe that the Daubert Test will uphold until another case similar to the Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals case will force new improvements into the standards of evidence admissibility. Works Cited Angier, Natalie. Two Pre-decision Articles on the Daubert Case (rules forscientific evidence). Free Legal Information & Forms The Lectric Law Library. The New York Times, 2 Jan. 1993. Web. 24 Oct. 2012. http//www. lectlaw. com/files/lit03. htm. Annas, George. Legal Issues in Medicine. Scientific Evidence in the Courtroom The Death of the Frye Rule. Version 330. Georgetown University, 7 Apr. 1994. Web. 24 Oct. 2012. . BRODY, JANE E.. SHADOW OF DOUBT WIPES OUT BENDECTIN NYTimes. com. The New York Times Breaking News, World News & Multimedia. The New York Times, 19 June 1983. Web. 24 Oct. 2012. . Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, 509 U. S. 579 (1993).. LII LII / Legal Information Institute. N. p. , n. d. Web. 24 Oct. 2012. . Mahle, Stephen. An Introduction to Daubert v. Merrell Dow. DaubertExpert. com. N. p. , n. d. Web. 24 Oct. 2012. .

Saturday, May 18, 2019

Alcoholics Anonymous Support Group (Aa)

Alcoholics Anonymous Support Group (AA) Location Wesley Church on Barstow The aid sort I attended was on October 19th, 2012 at 12pm at Wesley Church located on Barstow Avenue. It was in the Winterburg Education Building in room 3. A human beings by the name of Andy was leading the group. He first said a prayer and then asked if there were any pertly members. There were no(prenominal) so he asked if there were visitors. I introduced myself and said I was a Fresno State nursing student. He then said today they were going to communication about Step 12, which was about service.Service was about introducing AA to quite a little that could benefit from the program. Before you were expected to complete quantity 12, they wanted you to complete steps 1-11 first. The first somebody that spoke about his past was the leader, Andy. He shared with everyone that he had had three divorces and at one consign his children didnt talk to him. Alcoholism destroyed his life in his early years. H es straightway twenty years sober up. His last wife never came moxie to him but his children have since come back into his life. He leads AA skirmishs now because he expressed how AA serveed him experience his life back into order.Next to speak was a gentleman by the name of Rich. He was 257 days sober. He said that he is nowhere near step 12 but was hoping down the road he will make it there. He talked about having depression, diabetes eccentric person 2 and alcoholism. Alcoholism runs in his family. A year ago he almost died from diabetic ketoacidosis. Thats when he decided to turn his life around. He felt that he was given a back up chance at life and wanted to do positive things. He said that drinking doesnt produce anything positive and he wanted to make the most of the recumb of his life. A lady by the name of Carmen spoke next. She was three months sober.She talked about how her brother doesnt believe this will be farseeing term. She always falls back into drinking . Carmen wants to prove to not only her brother, but herself, that she will remain sober for the rest of her life. She said that this time different because she has recruited Gods strength and that will help her get through it. The other two people at the meeting declined to speak. They said they just wanted to listen. During the rest of the meeting, Andy spoke more about Step 12 and how to get to that step. Next was another prayer turn everyone joined hands. The meeting ended at 110pm.I observed the following Yaloms Curative Factors during the AA meeting 1. Instillation of Hope faith that the treatment mode can and will be effective. All the members felt that with Gods strength they can overcome the impossible. 2. Universality demonstration that we are not completely in our misery or our problems. By attending the AA meetings, the members k unexampled that they were not alone and there are others try with the same issue. 3. Imparting of information didactic instruction about mental health, mental illness, psychodynamics or whatsoever else might be the focal problem of the group. Ex. OCOA, Alanon learning about the disease process itself). Its main(prenominal) for members to get facts about their condition through formal teaching. 4. Altruism opportunity to rise out of oneself and help somebody else the feeling of usefulness.Altruism was discussed in Step 12. 5. Corrective recapitulation of primary family group experiencing transference relationships ripening out of primary family experiences providing the opportunity to relearn and clarify distortions. Members larn that they could resolve issues from the past with their family members that stemmed from alcoholism. . increment of socializing techniques social learning or development of interpersonal skills. When the AA members shared their experiences and received feedback from them they were developing new social skills. 7. Imitative behavior taking on the manner of group members who function m ore adequately. The members learned from Andys experience who has recovered. 8. Catharsis opportunity for expression of strong affect. The AA members felt safe during the meeting to talk about their innermost feelings. 9.Existential factors recognition of the basic features of existence through sharing with others (e. g. ultimate aloneness, ultimate death, ultimate responsibility for our own actions). The AA group helped the individuals take some direction in their life. 10. Group Cohesiveness The members of the AA group felt like they can accomplish anything together as a team. 11. Interpersonal learning receiving feedback from others and experimenting with new ways of relating. The AA members gained insight regarding how one perceives and is being perceived by others.

Friday, May 17, 2019

Malaysia Traditional Games

INTRODUCTION Multi-racial society in Malaysia has a wide variety of cultural grasped from different roots. Culture was consolidated into a unique culture because nearly incessantlyy descent has custom take ining their respective cultures. These include the worrys cooperate economic activities, where the bond is sustained and cultivate Closer with brio events and entertainment. Many crippleds were contested because of such customs. Traditional counts commit been able to form a part of life experienced by the ancestors communities respectively.Important foundation that guarantees the continuity of traditional adventures in the past is accord way our ancestors lived. Even since I was sm every last(predicate) told they knownize themselves with this state. Some of these abrogateorses argon now non contend yet but is only cognize by the p bents and grandpargonnts. But still in that location are or so children playing it instantly. Some of the enliveneds, including pride, kite, selambut, sepak raga, outperforms, ka problematicaldi, mahjong, etc.. CONGKAK The wordcongkakis believed to originate from oldMalaycongak, meaning mental calculation.The oldestmancala gimpy boards were found in a ruined fort of Roman Egypt and date back to the 4th degree centigrade AD by our PersatuanNational Geographic . later on that, the game was likely introduced to Southeast Asia by Indian or Arab traders in the 15th century throughmerchants via Malacca , an important trading post at that while Congkak has simple rules that allow the boards to have different numbers of welters. Congkak boards are often hold up of teak or mahogany wood . Normally Congkak has twain rows of seven circular holes and two large holes at both ends pissd Home . How to play?The game begins with seven game pieces (marbles or seeds) in each hole eject homes which remain empty. Congkak requires two musicians . Each player images the seven holes on his side and owns the home to hi s left. The goal is to wrap up as many pieces in your own home. On a turn, a player re behaves all pieces from one of the seven holes on his side. He then distributes them clockwise one in each hole to the left of this hole . This process skips an inverses home but non a players own home. The game ends when no pieces are left in any hole on both sides of the board.The players now moot the number of pieces in their own home and see who has won. Director Ahmad Idham produced in the first place 1 movie learnfilem Congkakat the year 2008 . If you wish to understand more about Congkak , toilette refer to this movie. WAU Now we are paltry to the following(a) part, namely Wau. For your general knowledge, Wau is actually farmers friend. Normally, farmers use it to represent a flying scarecrow in order to fend off birds from paddy fields. To prevent from over- development chemical substances to control the productivity of paddy, this may be an effective method to avoid harvested paddy from falling victim to the gesture creatures.Somebody said that the sound made by Wau is an excellent lullaby for the farmers children. This is because the melody helps ill at ease(p) kids clear forty winks while the farmers could go about their tasks uninterrupted History of Wau Bulan shows that it is the bra march onild of the Sri Wijaya pudding stone, symbolizing Dewa Mudas effort to reunify the empire. The young prince utilise the Wau as a raftvas to map out the conquered districts using fine patterns and flowers. Before he went to war, Dewa Muda would meditate in a cave to gain some eldritch insights. He then exist the cave with a basic structure of Wau Bulan before he overtaking off to war.After his return from a battle, the design kept on growing, symbolizing the strength of his empire much to the pride and delight of his pile. As a result, Wau Bulan could then said to derive its name from its laughingstock which resembles that of a crescent, from the medium of transportation for Dewa Muda to ascend to the heavens. Below are the steps for creating Wau your own. First of all, the spine of Wau is careful into 3 part, then making the point of separation. Wau wing section will tie graduation. Wing that is buttoned will likewise be tied at the marked point of wau spine.Then, bind at the top and bottom of the tail spine and wanton away sure that the balance in both sides. After that, connect the end of the tail for both left and right to the wing. For the waist of the Wau, make 2 semi circles from the bamboo complicate to form a circle as shown in Wau Bulan picture above. Lastly, make the head Wau with binding half(a) of the head with Wau wing with 2- border distance from the spine. SEPAK BULU AYAM (CHAPTEH) The chapteh is one of the Asian games. Before the chapteh have approached to Malaysia , actually the sepak bulu ayam game already appeared in the 5th century BC in china.The earliest reference to a game of iron boot a feathered object dates back to the 5th century BC in China . At that quantify, the chapteh is used to train military men and later cognise as Ti Jian Zu or funk little shuttlecock. For the shaolin monks in Henan, they practiced the game to strengthen their martial skills. In Vietnam, the game is known as da cau, while in Indonesia they called it as sepak kenchi. In the 2003 SEA spiriteds held in Vietnam,captehwas a customary sport. Internationally, Featherball Associations in Europe, USA and Turkey also show how multinational the game has become.In Malaysia and Singapore, the game also known as chapteh . The game was intimately welcomed by the malay citizen in the Malaysia, and become one of their traditional games. After that, the chapteh was accepted by other races and as variants of the name of sepak bulu ayam included capteh, chaptek and chatek seem to appear in Malaysia. interpretation Chapteh consist of feathers attached to a meritless or p bearic sole. HOW TO PLAY The chapteh requires players to keep an eye on a weight down shuttlecock in the shine, frequently using their feet, or other parts of the body may be used, except for the hands.It can be play individually or in a team. For individual, the longest time you keep the chapteh in the air, the higher the score you will get, the higher the chance to be champion. While in a group or team, a circle is drawn. The game is vie in the circle with the counterbalance assigned player attempting to keep thecaptehin the air until it falls to the ground within the circle. Then the next team member continues the count while playing in the circle. This continues until all team members have interpreted a turn in the game.The winning team is the one that scores the highest number of total kicks. BENEFITS The game can improve our hand-eye coordination. MAHJONG Mahjong is a game that originated in China, unremarkably compete by quaternary players. While the single player tile matching game mahjong solitaire is familiar in the West, in Asia it is the four-player table variance which holds predominance and has little in common with the solitaire version other than using the same tiles. Similar to the Western card game rummy, mahjong is a game of skill, strategy and calculation and involves a certain degree of chance.The game is played with a set of 136 tiles base on Chinese characters and symbols, although some regional variations use a different number of tiles. In most variations, each player begins by receiving thirteen tiles. In turn players draw and discard tiles until they complete a legal hand using the fourteenth drawn tile to form four groups (melds) and a twosome (head). There are fairly standard rules about how a piece is drawn, stolen from some other player and frankincense melded, the use of simples (numbered tiles) and honours (winds and dragons), the strains of melds, and the order of dealing and play.However there are many regional variations in the rules in addition, the scoring system and the minimum hand necessary to win varies significantly based on the local rules being used. THE MAHJONG SET A set of mahjong tiles usually has at least 136 tiles (most commonly 144). Mahjong tiles are split into these categories suits, comply, and flowers. Each rectangular shaped tile is about 1 ? inch x 1 inch x ? inch. The thick layer, the layer made of white bone or plastic is ? inch of the tiles height, while the thin layer, the layer made of imitation onyx, is ? inch of the tiles height.Each tile weighs about ? ounce and has a smooth texture, much like the volubility of marble. This can be attributed to the fact that all sides of each tile, including the edges, are polished to the point where no cruelness exists. This is usually the work of machines which have the capacity to obtain complete smoothness. The face of each tile (length 1 ? inch x width 1 inch) is carved with different letters or symbols. Due to the complexity of some of the characters and symbols, the designs are hand carved and filled in with paints of various colors. The tiles can be divided up into 4 groups of 34 tiles each.Within each group, the tiles are divided among the five suits or series. Each of the 4 groups are identical. In other wrangle, there are four tiles of each design (4 x 34=136). The rest 8 tiles are flowers. Suits There are three different suits numbered 1 to 9, which are called simple tiles. They are bamboo, characters, and circles. Suit 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Bamboos Characters Circles Honors There are two different honor suits the winds and the dragons. The winds are east, south, west and north, and the dragons are red middle, prosperity and White board.They have no numerical sequence and there are four tiles of each honor (e. g. four Red middle tiles). Bonus Tiles There are only eight tiles four flowers and four seasons. WindsEast,South,West,North DragonsRed middle,Prosperity,WhiteBoard FlowersPlum,Orchid,Chrysat hemun,Bamboo SeasonsSpring,Summer,Autumn,Winter CHINESE YO-YO The Chinese yo-yo is a toy from China consisting of two equally-sized discs connected with a long axle. The Chinese yo-yo is kept spinning on a string tied to two tholepins at its ends. Each stick is held in one hand.In modern times, it is used as a childrens toy and as a work tool in juggling and sometimes in Chinese ethnic dance. It is feasible to perform a large variety of tricks with the Chinese yo-yo which can be as lucky as throwing the yo-yo up into the air or tossing it around the users back. It was found during the Ming dynasty roughly 1386-1644. Design Chinese yo-yos were traditionally made of bamboo, which was very easy to hanging and not convenient for complicated tricks. Modern models, however, are now made of plastic for added durability. The sticks used with the yo-yo ontinue to be made of wood. Some Chinese yo-yos have grooves inset in the rim of the discs these grooves cause them to make a whistling sound when spinning at high pelt alongs. The sound allows the performer to gauge his speed and ad adept the yo-yo accordingly. vs The Chinese yo-yo has been adapted in western countries as the diabolo. The Chinese yo-yo differs from the diabolo in two capital ways. First, the axle of the Chinese yo-yo is much longer than that of the diabolo. Also, the Chinese yo-yo has wheel-shaped discs, whereas the diabolo consists of two bell-shapes.The Chinese yoyo is also typically grooved and made of hard plastic, while diabolos are not grooved and usually made of a durable rubber material. How to play If you are right handed, follow the instructions precisely. If you are left handed, reverse the handedness of the instructions. 1. belongings the yo-yo down on the ground directly in front of you. Put the string under the axle (the metallic element bit). 2. Roll the yo-yo over to your right foot, and let it stop. Then roll it over to the left or just back and forth, and lift the sticks into the air when it reaches the foot.This gives the yo-yo initial rotational momentum that stabilizes it when you lift it into the air. 3. Before it stops spinning, journey the right stick up and down in a hitting motion. Try to imagine elusion a carrot with a kitchen knife. Try to keep this up as long as possible without the yo-yo falling off. 4. The yo-yo will naturally tilt away from or toward you. Do not fret this is tardily controlled. If the yo-yo is tilting toward you, move your right hand forward. If it is tilting away from you, move your right hand back. Do this while keep to move the right stick up and down.This works by pushing against the top of the yo-yo with the string. 5. The yo-yo naturally tends to instability until you learn to keep it at consistent high speeds. Until then, you can rectify the balance of the yo-yo by moving the right stick it the turnaround direction yo-yo is leaning, like if its leaning forward, bring the stick backwards. 6. When you can keep th e yo-yo level and with reasonable speed, try learning to throw and catch it. This is done by entirely clout the two hand sticks apart rapidly, causing the yo-yo to fly up. To catch, simply position the string underneath he axle of the yo-yo. XIANGQI(CHINESE CHESS) Chinese deceiver called as Xiangqi or Xiangqi in Chinese, its categorised under tactics and strategy game with only two players on each game. Besides, its one of the famous games among Chinese communities and played by adult as well as children. Actually, xiangqi has the meaning of Elephant plot of ground, which Xiang refers to Elephant while Qi refers to Game. The game regard as a war amid two armies, Chu and Han, with the aims of capturing the enemys king, the player considered wins the game after successfully captured the enemys general.There is a river separate the two opposite sides that called as Chu River and Han Jie, meaning Han Border, which is a reference to the Chu-Han war. Xiangqi normally played on a boa rd that consist of 10 lines long by 9 lines wide, the pieces are placed on the intersections of the line which also known as points. There are total of 32 pieces on the board with 16 pieces on each side. Normally, the pieces are designed with red and black colours while each piece labelled with different character. plot of ground Point Advisor Cannon Chariot Elephant General Horse SoldierDifferences characters have different kind of movement on the board, player are not allowed to move the pieces to a point that already booked by another piece of the same army or stack on it. But players are allowed to capture enemys piece by moved to the point occupied and remove the hostiles piece from the board, the opponent piece is considered as being killed. The general is said to be in get a line when the general is in danger situation of being captured by the enemy player on his next move. At the same time, the player whos going to capture the general should announce the check imm ediately in order to warn the opponent side.If the generals player can make no move to prevent the enemy from capture the king, the situation is called as checkmate and the game is end. Xiang Qi origins from Asia but there are a lot of leagues and club all around the world. For example, there are United farming Chinese Chess Association in Britain and Malaysia Chinese Chess Association in Malaysia. Today, xiangqi developed rapidly and now everyone can plays xiangqi game through online or even install the game in the computer. KABADDI Kabaddi in India is counted among the most common and widely played traditional sports.Kabaddi originated in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, intimately 4000 years ago. consort to a legend, this game came into existence, when a son hit another boy for this candy. The boy who was hit chased the boy who hit him, and hit him back and ran away. Kabaddi also known as the Game of the Masses is the game, one person play against seven people which requires bo th skill and power on behalf of the players, and it also combines the characteristics of wrestling and rugby. LEGENDS ATTACHED TO KABADDI Kabaddi is a rather simple and inexpensive game, and it does not require a massive playing area, or any expensive equipment.There are some ancient scripts that refers to the existence of kabaddi in India. In Mahabharata, Arjuna had a unique talent in the game of kabaddi, as he was able to go inside the wall of enemies, destroy them all and come back unscathed. According to the Buddhist literature, Gautam Buddha used to play Kabaddi for recreation. Morever, the game earned a lot of fashionableity in the Sourthen part of Asia. ORIGIN OF KABADDI Kabaddi is probably the only game of offence and defence in which labialize is an individual attempt. The word Kabaddi may have originated from the Tamil words kai (hand) and pidi (catch). new-fangled DAY KABADDI The standard rules and regulations for Kabaddi were also formulated in 1918 however, the rules were brought out in print in the year 1932. The Amateur Kabaddi Federation came into existence in the year, in 1972. This body was formed with a view to extrapolate the game in the neighbouring countries and also to organize regular National Level tournaments. India was also instrumental in including Kabaddi in the main disciplines of the XI Asian Games held at Beijing, China in 1990. This was a major boundary in the history of kabaddi in India, as India won the Gold Medal in this championship.India also won the Gold Medals in the succending Asian Games held in 1994 at Hiroshima, Japan and in the Asian Games held in 1998 at Bangkok in Thailand. India played an important role in introducing the game of kabaddi to the African countries, while hosting a demonstration sport in the Afro- Asian games, in 2002. India also successfully took part in the first World Kabaddi Championship held at Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Kabaddi in india touched another milestone in 2004, when India hosted t he first ever Kabaddi World Cup, in Mumbai.India became the winner of the World Cup, as well. India has produced a number of talented Kabaddi players, so far, who have earned international recognition. CHATURANGA Chaturanga is one ot the oldest brain in the game world, played in ancient India. The game considered to be the ancestor of moderm day chess and the kings and princes of ancient India. The Sanskrit word Chaturanga means having four limbs or parts and it was also used describe the Indian army of Vedic times, where a platoon had four division like elephants,chariots, cavalry,and infantry.The board of chaturanga Ashtapada (eight square). Chaturanga was played during Gupta period. The game is presumed to be the common ances of the games of Chess,Shogi, and Makruk and it is related to Xiangqi and Janggi, as well. Banabhatta Harsha Charitha (c. 625)contains the earliest reference to the name Chaturanga . the game developed in Gupta India around the 6th century and 7th century, it was adopted as Shatianj in Sassanid Persia. Rhere are evidences like Sanskrit document, Vasavadatta from Subhandu that suggests Chaturanga as the ancestors of modern Chess.The pieces of Chaturanga had a lot of similarity with that of modern Chess. The pieces of Chauiranga were called as Raja(King), Mantri(Counsellor,ancestors of the Ferz), Gaja (Elephant,also named as Fil,later,Asva(Horse),Ratha(Chariot later called Rook) , and Pedati (Infantry of Pawns) . HOW TO PLAY The rules of moving the pieces in Chaturanga were also quite similar to that of modern Chess. The King was allowed to move as usual, but it had additional power. It could make Knight move during the game, provided that it hasnt been checked before it makes the dub move.There were no rule of castling in Chaturanga. The Counsellor in Chaturanga, was allowed to move one square diagonally and the Elephants used to move two squares diagonally. However, the Elephants was allowed to jump the intervening square. In Chatura nga,the rules of moving the Knight were the same as a usual Knight and the Rook or Chariot also moved like usual Rook. Though,the Pawns or soldiers in Chaturanga also moved like a usual pawn ,they were not allowed to make the double steps on it first move, like modern Chess.Acoording to the rules of Chatruranga, the Pawns could be promoted only when they arrived at the last rank of the board. However, promotions was available only to the type of pieces that was on the promotion-square in the opening setup. The main objective of a plyer in Chaturanga was to mate the opponents King . The player talemates its opponent was declared as the loser in Chaturanga. However, apart from the two-handed version of Chaturanga that has been discussed so far there was also another version named Chaturaji, having four hands.There is game described in the Indian epic, Mahabarata that had similarity with that of Chaturaji. KHO KHO Kho Kho is one of the most popular traditional sports in india. This ga mes is an immense test of the participantss somatogenetic fitness, strength, speed and stamina and it also requires a certain amount of ability on behalf of the participants. Additionally, many historians say that it is actually a modified form of Run and Chase. It is played by a team consisting of 12 players, where only 9 players enter the arena.In Kho-Kho, the participants simply need to chase and catch their opponents in order to win the game. In the ancient time, the game of Kho- kho was played on raths or chariots in Maharashtra and it was known as Rathera. The main aim of the participants in the game of Kho-Kho is to catch the opponent by pursuit and to chase, rather than just run. RULES OF KHO-KHO The rules for Kho Kho were framed in the beginning of the 20th century. According to the rules and regulation of Kho- Kho, each of the participating teams consists of 12players, though only 9players take the field for a contest.There are two innings in a match and an innings cons ists of chasing and running turns of 7minutes each. One player of the chasing team play the role of an busy chaser and the remaining 8members of the team sit in their 8squares on the underlying lane, alternately facing the opposite direction. The mobile chaser stands at either of the posts and gets ready to begin the pursuit. It is mandatory for the members of the chasing team to put their opponent out by touching them with their palms and without committing a foul. The defenders try to play out the 7minutes, and the chaser keep on trying to dismiss them.There are 3ways through which a defender can be dismissed * If an active chaser touches him with his palm without commiting a foul, * If the defender goes out of the limits on his own, or * If the defenders enters the limits the limit late. Usually, the defenders enter the limits, in batches of 3 and after the third and last defender of batch is out, the next batch has to enter the limits, before a Kho is given by the successful active chaser. The defenders are allowed to move on both sides of the central lane. However the active chaser does not have the permission to change the direction to which he is committed.He is also not allowed to cross the central lane. An active chaser can only change his position with a seated chaser, by touching him from behind by palm, and uttering the word kho loudly. A chase or attack is built up simultaneously through a series of Kho as the chase continues with a relay race of chasers. There are an interval of 5minutes at the end of each of the innings and there is also a break of 2minutes in between the turns. Each of the sides alternates their positions between chasing and defending. There is no bar for the participants in the game of kho- Kho and people from all age can participate.The game can be played by men, women, and children of all ages and kho- Kho does not require a lot of equipments to play. The time limit for the game is not more than 37minutes. PLAYING sketc h OF KHO- KHO The game of Kho- Kho require a rectangular playground that is evenly surfaced, with dimension of 29m by 16m. There are 2 rectangles at the end which comprises of 2 wooden poles. The central lane is 907. 50cm long and across the clear squares, lie 8 cross lanes which are 500cm long and 70cm wide. There are 2 posts at the end of central lane, which rise 120cm above the ground surface with a circumference of 30- 40cm.THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN TRADITIONAL GAMES AND MODERN GAME Game is a recreational activity whether for fun, leisure time or work. It can be done alone or in groups. Games usually have rules that must be followed by all . According to the playing terms and condition,there are some win and some lose, or draw. Games that involve physical activity are usually called sports. Games are held until now but there is a difference between the first game and the game played now. Previous games such as wau game, dragon dance or top game features art that symbolizes the be auty and capital of New Hampshire of the people in Malaysia.These activities will normally be done in groups where they have similar interests. Each will share their energy, ideas, and time just to procure that such activities can be implemented. While for the game now, usually computer games that does not symbolize anything and do not need to be done by a group of people and not to strengthen the bond between people like the game before. In addition, computer games will cause dependance among players. Players who are too addicted to the game will not care about their health, do not eat or sleep just to play the game.Those time games usually give different harmony with nature while nowadays games like computer games such as counter strike gives bad influence to boys. In turn this will contaminate the minds of the young people of this age. SUGGESTIONS TO PROMOTE TRADITIONAL GAMES * procession through mass media and multimedia such as TV advertising, internet social website such a s Facebook, Twitter and so on. * Organization of activities by NGO promotion via/through brochure,pamplets. * government roles organise state,national and international level competitions among community. provides good infrastructure such as, field,sports equipment. -organise assuredness campaign gives opportunities to upgrade the players skills. -gives rewards to player-such as trophy, cash money, big(a) honours such as Dato. * role of school authority organise school level competitions among students. -actively intricate in sports activities upgrade their skills from school level. -sports school give a lot of opportunities to many students who are talented and specialized in sports skills. -provides more bright future to skilled players. traditional games as one of the co-curriculum activities in school. CONCLUSION Advances in technology have made the loss of what was once very proud heritage. But,do we aware of the fact that we inherited the traditional game? Sadly the re are those among young people today do not recognize traditional games such as pride, kite flying, top-spinning, kite, kabaddi, yo-yo and so on. Many benefits to be derived from traditional games such as can strengthen bonds among people, nourish the body by sweating and can preserves the cultural heritage of ages.In addition, the state can promotes the game as one of the activities that need to be introduced to the tourists who comes to Malaysia. It will also be the pride of Malaysians. Unfortunately, Malaysian think about it they just want the inspiration and follow all the latest technological changes which made them to forget the heritage that should be treated well. Therefore, teenagers can follow and continue the game technology but at the same time still discover and uphold ancestral heritage. REFERENCES * Lau, H. T. Chinese Chess. Tuttle Publishing, Boston, 1985. ISBN 0-8048-3508-X. Leventhal, Dennis A. The Chess of China. Taipei, Taiwan Mei Ya, 1978. (out-of-print but c an be partly downloaded) * Li, David H. First computer programme on Xiangqi Chinese Chess1. Premier Publishing, Bethesda, Maryland, 1996. ISBN 0-9637852-5-7. * Li, David H. The Genealogy of Chess. Premier Publishing, Bethesda, Maryland, 1998. ISBN 0-9637852-2-2. * Li, David H. Xiangqi Syllabus on Cannon Chinese Chess2. Premier Publishing, Bethesda, Maryland, 1998. ISBN 0-9637852-7-3. * Li, David H. Xiangqi Syllabus on Elephant Chinese Chess3. Premier Publishing, Bethesda, Maryland, 2000.ISBN 0-9637852-0-6. * Li, David H. Xiangqi Syllabus on Pawn Chinese Chess4. Premier Publishing, Bethesda, Maryland, 2002. ISBN 0-9711690-1-2. * Li, David H. Xiangqi Syllabus on Horse Chinese Chess5. Premier Publishing, Bethesda, Maryland, 2004. ISBN 0-9711690-2-0. * Jupiter Infomedia Pvt. Ltd. Kabaddi. Retrieved 7/05/2012. fromhttp//www. indianetzone. com/1/kabaddi. htm * Jupiter Infomedia Pvt. Ltd. Chaturanga. Retrieved 7/05/2012. fromhttp//www. indianetzone. com/39/chaturanga_chess. htm * Wikiped ia,Kho-Kho, Retrieved May 22,2012, fromhttp//en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Kho_kho

Thursday, May 16, 2019

Project2 (Global Issues in Business and Economics ) Essay

Project2 (Global Issues in Business and Economics ) - Essay pillow slipThe company designs its operation in such a way that it provides great support to its pricing strategy. in reality it is found that in case of easyCar operation strategy and designing of processes ar aligned with business strategy of the company. Its prime business strategy is to attract customer by offering low price and in order to support this strategy it designs its operation accordingly. For example, it is found that while in cases traditional car term of a contract companies prime locations are situated within the airport complex of all major airports, the secondary and the nigh prime locations of easyCar are situated near train or bus stations where economic travelers are frequently found and where rent are drilld to be quite low. Not lone(prenominal) that, easyCar to a fault does not choose its location within airport complex, given its high cost nature, instead it selects nearby areas of airport fo r its location and thus can offer lower price compared to traditional car lease companies. ( Cateora and Graham, 2007 Saraswat, Nahar, and Karki, 2009) Unlike other traditional companies who focus on building larger and beautifully decorated facilities, lots allowing customers to drive unlimited miles, and arranging a wide rage of cars within the fleet, easyCar generally build undersize and simple facilities in order to keep its cost at a low level. Not only that, it also provides one type of car per site as a result of which maintenance becomes much easier and customer service staff find it much easier to achieve very high rate of enjoyment as each car can be substituted for the other. easyCar also does not allow unlimited driving force which play a major role in keeping costs at low level. ( Cateora and Graham, 2007 Saraswat, Nahar, and Karki, 2009) Customers use to have a very high involvement in the process in case of easyCar in the sense that before returning the car custo mers are asked to do a certain jobs like make a print out of the service contract bringing this to the company by their own, re-fill the car and cleaning it in order to bring it to ready-to-rent condition. All these lower the costs of easyCar. Not only that during the entire engagement process this company extensively substitute people by technology in order to quash labor costs. ( Cateora and Graham, 2007 Saraswat, Nahar, and Karki, 2009) The product/service in the world(prenominal) competitive market The car rental pains has become very much attractive to the residents and businesses of europium and America. Although, in less developed economies of Asia and Africa, the product or service has still not achieved a very prominent place in the transportation field, it has dominance to become popular in these nation as well in near future for a number of factors. More and more market players will start to operate on a global platform. Actually, this persistence offers the buye rs of its products a sustainable and reasonably priced access to road transportation. Apart from this, this car rental industry also provides an opportunity of having an early access to the trials of large varieties of low-carbon means of transport. Not only the residents and business houses, still also the tourists are increasingly becoming dependent on the car rental industry of Europe for their entire traveling schedule. easyCar is a viable competitor to taxis, buses and trains. The major reason that has made a punishing competitor to buses, taxis and trains is its operational