Saturday, August 31, 2019

Human Resource Managers in a Multinational Company Essay

1. ‘To what extent are human resource managers in a multinational company restricted by cultural and institutional factors in implementing policies and practices across their subsidiaries? Discuss your answer giving examples.’ In the face of globalization, organisations struggle to develop the human resource management strategy (HRMS) between global integration and local differentiation. This is regarded as a critical concern for multinational enterprises (MNEs) since they suffer from cultural and institutional differences to integrate HRM practices and shape HRM activities to operate abroad. Regarding that, each cultural and institutional factors are developed over its history with unique insight into managing the organisation, the appropriate HRM practice would vary. The differentiation in national culture and institution call the different management practices that need to be concerned significantly especially for multinational companies’ managers. Researchers highlight the congruence between these factors and HR practice for higher organsational performance. When the HRM practice fits with the basic value shared by employees, the job satisfaction, employee motivation and commitment will be attained. This comes with the implication that cultural and institutional factors are pivotal in shaping the decisions and policies of managers of organisations. In this essay, it will explain what is the institutional and cultural factor with theoretical approach. After that it will suggest implications of institutional and cultural perspective for International Human Resource Management to answer how these factors influence in implementing management policies and practices. According to Hofstede (1991), Culture refers to the â€Å"shared sets of beliefs, values and norms† that is programmed into an actor’s mind. It is regarded as the psychological ‘software’ and sets of informal rule, while institution is more ‘hardware’ of modified and negotiated legal systems that actors follow. The institutionalism emphasises the legitimacy, which organsations struggle to acquiring and maintaining in relation to the environment. One of the new institutionalist theories, the ‘Variety of capitalism’, treats the corporation as a relationships network that locates organisation in its  stakeholders with employees and with competitors. The approach highlights the importance of institutional complementarities that argue the success of an organisation depending on the capability to coordinate effectively. The theory draws two types of political and economic structures across nations. One is the liberal market economic orientation (LME) and the other is the coordinated market economic orientation (CME). Companies in some North-Western European countries including Germany and Switzerland with CMEs tend to have highly structured arrangements in labour market that form strong trade union. Banks in these countries are highly coordinated with firms and have long-term capital. In contrast, there are loose hire and fire labour market regulations and dispersed international investors in the U.K and U.S.A where classified as LMEs. The source of finance in these countries is the stock market, with the clear difference. The figure1 demonstrates that corporations in these different types of systems do not operate in the same market. Figure 1. Institutions across sub-spheres of the political economy Source: Hall and Soskice, (2001) It shows the positions of OCED countries that describe institutional character in the financial and labour market. The higher development in a stock market implies higher dependency on market coordination with emphasis on financial criteria, whereas a higher degree of protection for employees is likely to rely more on non-market criteria. The flexible labour market in LMEs is suitable to easy access to stock market capital. Due to the competitive market conditions, firms in LME markets highly emphasise the financial performance rather than long-term strategies. Nervous investors such as those from the hedge fund tend to hesitate to investing in companies with long-term and uncertain employee training that ties capital in workers’ skills. Conversely, long-term employment arrangement and long-term capital remain in the essence of CMEs. The institutional considerations lead to different types of organisational behavior and investment patterns that shape different HRM policies and practices. Firms in LMEs emphasise short-term competition that likely treat  employees as disposable resources. Employees’ performances are appraised individually with a financial incentive system so managers are empowered to control HRM with considerable autonomy. Investments in employee training and development are classified as ‘overhead.’ `In contrast, HRM polices in CMEs regard employees as valuable assets for sustaining a competitive advantage thus tend to make a greater effort in investments in product innovation and employee development encouraging employment stability. In the system, the higher degrees of job security and work force commitment are derived, since its employment regulation and laws are protected from strong trade union and government. Moreover, different business systems across nations also significantly impact HRM issues. The issues including working hours, scheme of performance appraisal and job contract are highly influenced by local institutional arrangement. The MNCs in Japan prioritize work organisation, which contains quality oriented and flexible practice, and their HR practices are adopted to be suitable with this approach. Likewise, German MNCs, where short run financial ratio is not a greater concern, rely more on long term strategies that highly regulate the hours of work and worker participation. In this regard, the ability of MNCs to fit various institutional arrangements with the local environment is essential to have an advantage in global operations. The evidence from the survey conducted by Guest and Hoque (1996) show that MNCs in Germany do not implement their ‘best practices’ into subsidiaries in the U.K. such as long-term employment plans, union perception and employee training. Another crucial factor managers from MNCs should consider for effective HRM is culture. It is assumed as ‘the major source of differentiation’ in managerial behavior among different nations. One of the most widely cited approaches to culture, Hofstede’s study (1980), classifies four cultural dimensions based on the survey data from 116,000 IBM employees. The study suggests possible origin and consequence for managerial behavior in different dimension contexts. Power distance reflects the dependent relationship between superior and subordinate. Companies in high power distance subordinate have high dependence to superior with greater reverence through the hierarchical structure. Uncertainty avoidance measures different degrees of preparation for future risk and ambiguity. In risk adverse  organisations, rule making and bureaucracy are placed to deal with possibilities of risk and members prefer to behave what they are expected. Individualism versus collectivism dimension reveals the different level of desire to feeling that they belong with a group. At last, masculinity versus femininity dimension presents different values that masculine and feminine society prefer differently. Highly masculine societies have a higher tendency to be competitive since high earning and challenging careers are important values for employees. In societies with femininity tendencies, values related to satisfaction, security and cooperation are emphasised. The study highlights the importance of culture to coordinate different managerial behavior for international businesses. Another cross-cultural approach, Hall’s study (1976) classifies cultures into low and high context cultures, each with distinct demands and preferences. The culture characterizes the nature of human relationship, communication and authority. For example, the line of distinction between high and low context cultural communication has been particularly documented. According to Hall and Hall (1990), in high context communication, speakers tend to utilize relative indirect style of communication. On the other hand, in low context communication, speakers often employ more or less direct communication style. Clearly, these communication dimensions area is an overlap of the individualism-collectivism from Hofstede’s study. Collectivist societies often concern about minimizing the chances of hurting other parties. These groups emphasise the value conformity and traditions. It is for this reason that they prefer to use high context communication. The team members of collectivists often prefer communicating directly with their leaders. They are often concerned about avoiding responses that are negative, a move that is aimed at maintaining harmony. Any form of communication is aimed at fostering interpersonal communication. The tendency is reversed in individualist societies where each member pays more attention to personal goals and interests. The different communication styles and human relationships naturally relate to the different preferences of organisational structure that shape the HRM practices and policies. The culture influences multiple aspects of HRM, thus it is likely to be  effective when HR practice and policy fit with the culture. In regard to recruitment, collectivistic cultures prefer network based recruitment method like employee referrals. The method is supposed to enhance employee commitment and loyalty that strengthens the social network. Since collectivism highlights cooperation rather than individual achievement, it more considers candidates’ ascribed statuses more than personal skills and knowledge. Conversely, employers in an individualistic organisation select candidates based on necessary abilities through highly structured methods such as bureaucratic interviews. Similarly, the organisation with high uncertainty avoidance index prefers open recruitment with the use of more structured selection method as it is highly correlated with formalisation. In terms of performance appraisal, individualised appraisal and rewards are highly correlated with individualism and lower degree of uncertainty avoidance. Regarding that various reward practices based on individual performance would result in uncertainty it is less likely to emerge in risk adverse society. The incentive scheme may also not be needed in high power distance cultures since subordinates are more likely to be motivated by superiors’ direction. The merit-based selection and promotion, which consider individual performance and contribution to the organisation is related to individualism and low level of power distance. It is opposed to the value from collectivism and femininity that emphasise group harmony and cooperation. In conclusion, institution and culture significantly influence in managerial behavior. It is needed to take institutional and cultural factors into consideration in shaping and adopting management policies and practices. Cultural and institutional factors are so varied that they integrate all the factors oriented towards social and ethical responsibilities, which is a major focus for contemporary organisations. Cultural values demands that decision and policies that managers make reflect the interests of the society, including those of the institutions. Since the inappropriate management concept may trigger misunderstanding and conflict among subsidiaries it is vital for effective management. Clearly, Institutional and cultural researches contribute to analysing and understanding various manifestations of HR across a border. However, managers should take careful  consideration before implementing specific HR practices or policies to prevent overly deterministic connection from the theoretical context. In order to achieve successful performance, MNCs have to adjust and moderate management practice in accordance with the local environment. The differences in a business system, local environment and culture between home and host countries are the significant determinants for both evolutions. References: [1] Aycan, Z. (2005), ‘The interplay between cultural and institutional/structural contingencies in human resource management practices’, International Journal of Human Resource Management, 16(7), pp. 1083-1119. [2] Earley, P.C. (1994), ‘Self or group? Cultural effects of training on self-efficacy and Performance’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 39(1), pp. 89-117. [3] Gomez-Mejia, L.Y & Welbourne, T. (1991), ‘Compensation strategies in a global context’, Human Resource Planning, 14. pp. 29-42 [4] Guest. D. & Hoque, K. (1996) ‘National Ownership and HR Practices in UK Greenfield Sites’, Human Resource Management Journal, 6(4), pp. 50-74. [5] Hall, E.T. (1976), Beyond culture, New York: Anchor Books [6] Hall, E.T. & Hall, M.R. (1990) ‘Understanding Cultural Differences’, Yarmouth, MA: Intercultural Press. [7] Hall, P.A. & Soskice, D. (2001) ‘An introduction to varieties of capitalism’ in Varieties of Capitalism: The Institutional Foundations of Comparative Advantage, Oxford: Oxford University Press [8] Hofstede, G. (1980), Culture’s Consequences: International Differences in Work-related Values, California: Sage Publications [9] Hofstede, G. (1991), Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind, Berkshire: McGraw-Hill [10] Tsui, A.S., Nifadkar, S.S. & Ou, A.Y. (2007) ‘Cross-national, cross-cultural organizational behaviour research: Advances, gaps and recommendations’, Journal of Management, 33 (3), pp. 426–478. ——————————————– [ 1 ]. Earley, P.C. (1994), ‘Self or group? Cultural effects of training on self-efficacy and Performance’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 39(1), 89-117 [ 2 ]. Hall, P.A. & Soskice, D. (2001) ‘An introduction to varieties of capitalism’ in Varieties of Capitalism: The Institutional Foundations of Comparative Advantage, Oxford: Oxford University Press, Page 1. [ 3 ]. Hall, P.A. & Soskice, D. (2001) ‘An introduction to varieties of capitalism’ in Varieties of Capitalism: The Institutional Foundations of Comparative Advantage, Oxford: Oxford University Press, Page 4. [ 4 ]. Tsui, A.S., Nifadkar, S.S. & Ou, A.Y. (2007) ‘Cross-national, cross-cultural organizational behavior research: Advances, gaps and recommendations’, Journal of Management, 33 (3), pp. 426–478. [ 5 ]. Aycan, Z. (2005), ‘The interplay between cultural and institutional/structural contingencies in human resource management practices’, Internationa l Journal of Human Resource Management, 16(7), pp. 1083-1119. [ 6 ]. Gomez-Mejia, L.Y & Welbourne, T. (1991), ‘Compensation strategies in a global context’, Human Resource Planning, 14. pp. 29-42

Friday, August 30, 2019

Sinai Peninsula

â€Å"In 1956, Egypt nationalized the Suez Canal, a waterway marking the boundary between Egyptian territory in Africa and the Sinai Peninsula. Thereafter, Israeli ships were prohibited from using the Canal, owing to the state of war between the two states. Egypt also prohibited ships from using Egyptian territorial waters on the eastern side of the peninsula to travel to and from Israel, effectively imposing a blockade on the Israeli port of Eilat. Subsequently, in what is known in Egypt as the Tripartite Aggression, Israeli forces, aided by Britain, and France, invaded Sinai and occupied much of the peninsula within a few days. Several months later Israel withdrew its forces from Sinai, following strong pressure from the United States and the Soviet Union. Thereafter, the United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF) was stationed in Sinai to prevent any military occupation of the Sinai. In 1967, Egypt reinforced its military presence in Sinai, changed the prohibition of Israeli shipping using Egyptian territorial waters and on May 16, ordered the UNEF out of Sinai with immediate effect. Secretary-General U Thant eventually complied and ordered the withdrawal without Security Council authorization. Subsequent to Egyptian actions, Israel attacked Egypt, Syria, and Jordan, starting the Six-Day War. Israel captured the entire Sinai Peninsula, and Palestine's Strip from Egypt, the Palestinian West Bank and East Jerusalem from Jordan (which it had ruled since 1949), and the Golan Heights from Syria. The Suez Canal, the east bank of which was now occupied by Israel, was closed. Israel expelled thousands of Egyptians from Sinai, and commenced efforts at large scale Israeli settlement in the peninsula, concurrently with similar settlement in the Gaza Strip, West Bank, and Golan Heights. Following the Israeli conquest of Sinai, Egypt launched the War of Attrition aimed at forcing Israel to withdraw from Egyptian territory. The war saw protracted conflict in the Suez Canal Zone, ranging from limited to large scale combat. Israeli shelling of civilian areas in the cities of Port Said, Ismailia, and Suez on the west bank of the canal, led to high civilian casualties (including the virtual destruction of Suez), and contributed to the flight of some one million Egyptian internal refugees. Ultimately, the war concluded in 1970 with no change in the front line. Upon becoming President of Egypt following the death in office of President Gamal Abdel Nasser, Anwar Al-Sadat sought a diplomatic solution to the conflict, offering peace and recognition to Israel in exchange for the Israeli withdrawal from all the Egyptian, Palestinian, and Syrian territory occupied in 1967, and a resolution of the Palestinian refugee problem. Israel rejected all of Egypt's proposals, with Israeli Prime Minister Golda Meir insisting that Sinai was now part of Israel, and that it would be settled by Israelis. Consequently, Egypt and Syria began planning jointly for a military offensive to re-take their respective territories under Israeli occupation. On 6 October 1973, Egypt commenced Operation Badr to liberate Sinai, whilst Syria launched a simultaneous operation to liberate the Golan Heights, thereby beginning the Yom Kippur War (known in Egypt as the October War). Egyptian engineering forces built pontoon bridges to cross the Suez Canal, and stormed the supposedly impregnable Bar-Lev Line, Israel's defensive line along the canal. Though the Egyptians maintained control of most of the east bank of the Canal, in the later stages of the war, the Israeli military crossed the southern section of Canal, cutting off the Egyptian 3rd Army, and occupied a section of the west bank. The war ended following a mutually agreed-upon ceasefire. After the war, as part of the subsequent Sinai Disengagement Agreements, Israel withdrew from the Canal, with Egypt agreeing to permit passage of Israeli ships. The canal was reopened in 1975, with President Sadat leading the first convoy through the canal aboard an Egyptian destroyer. In 1979, Egypt and Israel signed a peace treaty in which Israel agreed to withdraw from the entirety of Sinai. Israel subsequently withdrew in several stages, ending in 1982. The Israeli pull-out involved dismantling almost all Israeli settlements, including the settlement of Yamit in north-eastern Sinai. The exception was the coastal city of Sharm el-Sheikh, which the Israelis had renamed as Ofira during the period of their occupation. The Treaty allows monitoring of Sinai by the Multinational Force and Observers, and limits the number of Egyptian military forces in the peninsula. † (Wikipedia, 2013) Problem Since Egypt and Israel were always fighting for the right to be at the Sinai Peninsula, they damaged it. Everyone is trying to have Sinai peninsula because of its important role when it came to power for trade in the sea. After a lot of years, Egypt finally came to make a peace treaty that said that Israel would have to withdraw from the entirety of Sinai. Israel did it, with the exception of the city of Sharm el-Sheikh. Causes Egypt and Israel wanted Sinai because of the trade they could gain if they had it for their country. Each wanted Sinai for the territory. Now days, there has been a lot of terrorist attacks because of the resentment of the poverty faced by many Bedouin in the area. Attacking the tourist industry was viewed as a method of damaging the industry so that the government would pay more attention to their situation. Since the 2011 Egyptian Revolution unrest has become more prevalent in the area including the 2012 Egyptian-Israeli border attack in which 16 Egyptian soldiers were killed by militants 3. Responsible People â€Å"The Egyptian Organization for Human Rights has denounced what it calls terrorist acts in Sinai in the early hours of Monday morning, blaming the Muslim Brotherhood for the violence in which civilians, including children, were killed and wounded. The organization blamed the Muslim Brotherhood for attacs which saw civilians, including children, killed Monday. The EOHR claimed Ikhwan leaders had aggravated the situation, by stating that â€Å"the situation in Sinai will calm down only if President [Mohamed] Morsy is reinstated. â€Å"† (Egypt Independent, 2013) Tripartite aggression: Because they invaded Sinai Peninsula Egypt government of that time: Because they nationalized the Suez Canal and began the war.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Inspirational Stories Essay

Once upon a time, there was a king who ruled a prosperous country. One day, he went for a trip to some distant areas of his country. When he was back to his palace, he complained that his feet were very painful, because it was the first time that he went for such a long trip, and the road that he went through was very rough and stony. He then ordered his people to cover every road of the entire country with leather. Definitely, this would need thousands of cows’ skin, and would cost a huge amount of money. Then one of his wise servants dared himself to tell the king, â€Å"Why do you have to spend that unnecessary amount of money? Why don’t you just cut a little piece of leather to cover your feet? † The king was surprised, but he later agreed to his suggestion, to make a â€Å"shoe† for himself. There is actually a valuable lesson of life in this story: to make this world a happy place to live, you better change yourself – your heart; and not the world. Once there was a king who told some of his workers to dig a pond.  Once the pond was dug, the king made an announcement to his people saying that one person from each household has to bring a glass of milk during the night and pour it into the pond. So, the pond should be full of milk by the morning. After receiving the order, everyone went home. One man prepared to take the milk during the night. He thought that since everyone will bring milk, he could just hide a glass of water and pour inside the pond. Because it will be dark at night, no one will notice. So he quickly went and poured the water in the pond and came back. In the morning, the king came to visit the pond and to his surprise the pond was only filled with water! What has happened is that everyone was thinking like the other man that â€Å"I don’t have to put the milk, someone else will do it. † Dear friends, when it comes to help the Religion of Allah, do not think that others will take care of it. Rather, it starts from you, if you don’t do it, no one else will do it. So, change yourself to the way of Allah to serve Him and that will make the difference.

PMI analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 3

PMI analysis - Essay Example Another negative thing I learnt is that life is filled with things that try to reduce our success. E.g. economic recession, business competition and sickness. Trust and cooperation are the most important things that leaders use to make their employees feel sale. Unfortunately, these are feelings, and not everyone has them. Simon gives a story of captain Williams, who ran through bullets in an ambush to save lives. It is not often that we meet people who are willing to endanger their lives to save others. It is interesting also to note that great leaders are always willing to sacrifice the numbers to save the people. As much as they are concerned about making profit they are equally concerned about the people under their leadership. Great leaders can also make people safe, and this improves overall productivity within the organization. Trust and cooperation are very important aspects that every employee should possess. However, trust and cooperation are not instructions but rather feelings. It will take the actions of a great leader to make people under his leadership feel safe and in turn wins their trust and

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Developing an Implementation Plan Research Paper

Developing an Implementation Plan - Research Paper Example Gaining Approval from Organizational Leaders So as to have a sound start to the problem analysis, the entire organization is to be working en masse aiming at elimination of the roots of the problem. Hence, for effectiveness of such a huge step, the Managing directors of the hospital are to be addressed through paper draft of the problem followed by detailed meetings that present the need to address this problem on humane level, and gaining their approval to make initiative for the change. Current Problem- A Comprehensive Insight A group of related concepts that are used to propose action that guide practice in any field including nursing is referred as a theory. A practical theory that can be applied in this concept is the Jean Watson’s Theory of Caring. This theory is based on four main concepts which are identification of human beings, health, environment /society and nursing (Daniels, 2004). According to this theory the main concern of nursing is the promotion of health, pr evention of illness, caring for the sick and restoration of health to the patients regardless of their status in the society. As such even inmates are entitled to such a treatment as envisaged in this theory. The rationale for choosing this theory is based on the order of needs by Watson into biophysical needs, psychophysical needs and psychosocial needs even among prisoners. According to Kim & Kollak (2006) the Watson’s theory of caring strives to depict, predict and explain nursing phenomenon based on relativity in providing appropriate care to patients. The foundations of nursing practice are provided by this theory through the recognition of the need rankings. This is in regard to the health care quality available for inmates while in incarceration. This shows the endeavour by the nurses to maintain professional borders and thereby enhance the quality and standards of health care to inmates. A good example is the requirement by the American Nurses Credentialing Centre (AN CC) for all nurse managers and leaders in facilities seeking accreditation have at the very least, a baccalaureate degree (ACCN, 2013). Endorsement of good health among prisoner population as for the general population is the prime objective of nursing. Perry J, et al., reported that prisoners have greater health needs owing to higher incidence of chronic disease. Generally, a prisoner possesses a vulnerable mindset due to myriad possible reasons such as unemployment, family disputes and abuse (physical, mental or sexual). The Offender Health and Social Care Strategy (DH2009a) set standards for offender health care stating that prisoners along with their families shall receive effective care and treatment equivalent to the general public. (Powell et al., 2010) comprehensively reviewed the dilemma of the prisoners from the eyes of the nursing staff. Various aspects were discussed and conclusions drawn from the results of the survey are that that a stable association between healthcar e managers and local National Health Service is required. The infrastructure of prisons and their security measures need strong collaboration with health care unit. (Powell, 2010) On the other hand, the education of the nurses has a very high impact on patient health and safety and is a major determining factor of nurse’s attitudes and actions. (Altmann et al., 2012) recently surveyed on the aforementioned line and found that nurse’

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

The History Of Christopher Columbus Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

The History Of Christopher Columbus - Essay Example Prior to hardcore revelations made by Bigelow regarding the extraordinarily respectful public hero Columbus, the American nation strongly believed that Columbus was the courageous navigator who took great pains to travel around the world and discover the land of America, where he found the local people to be extremely co-operative, friendly, and understanding. The fresh and riveting information introduced by Bigelow in his revisionist history based on the voyage made by Columbus in 1492 has turned many persons’ heads and rustled up hot debates regarding which version of the voyage made by Columbus is weighty and credible, the old traditional one or the new not-so-pretty version. Comparing the conventional and modern versions regarding Columbus’s historical journey, one remains dumbfounded as to what to believe and what to reject as a fake piece of information. If on one hand, the conventional historical version presents an extremely noble, well-mannered, compassionate, and heroic version of Columbus, then on other hand, the modern version introduced by Bigelow is enough to fervently shake one’s beliefs about various actions made by Columbus to the point that one starts seeing oneself as a submissive fool, who readily took what was taught in the schools at mere face value. Traditional historical version is so designed as to overlook all the deficiencies in Columbus’s character and present him as a man of larger-than-life vision who was dedicated to the native residents of America and treated them with remarkable dignity, while taking great care to give them their space so that they could live their lives the way they were prior to the di scovery and arrival of Columbus and his men. Bigelow claims that first of all, the word discovery is in itself a laughably loaded word that does not relate in any way to Columbus, who was just travelling for personal gain and certainly ambitious to search for riches and gold that could be enjoyed by him and his heirs. It was just a mater of co-incidence that he came across the land which was to be named America later. Columbus’s main intention never remained traveling for the sake of discovery, rather he travelled in an order to search for ways that could make him powerful. T hunger for power and money is just proved by the way Columbus and his men treated the native residents of America. Columbus forced the native people to choose him as their governor and unjustifiably demanded 10% share in everything that was shipped to Spain. It was Columbus who actually initiated the slave trade and like a brutal tyrant that he was, demanded large amounts of gold from the native people. The conventional and modern historical versions differ so hugely that one finds oneself entrapped between the two utterly opposite schools of thought. Speaking of Columbus, (Bigelow) says that â€Å"he also deserves credit for initiating the trans-Atlantic slave trade, albeit in the opposite direction than we’re used to thinking of it.† In an attempt to get more and more students acquainted with the modern version of Columbus’s history, Bigelow lays stress on the fact that taking any piece of information at its face value is a highly detestable attitude which should be despised by every student. Bigelow encourages students to explore and contemplate at length nearly every widely accepted belief because only in this way, fresh and crisp facts can be exposed before the public. He deliberately chose the historical issue of Columbus and his actual intentions because he knew this would prove to be the most interesting way to get hold of the

Monday, August 26, 2019

BJB Manufacturing Company Quality Management Initiative Proposal Research Paper

BJB Manufacturing Company Quality Management Initiative Proposal - Research Paper Example ..3 The Total Quality Management†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.4 Process Management†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦...4 Managing the quality of the products†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..4 Employees†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦4 Shareholders†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.5 The Executive Management†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã ¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦5 Consumers†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦5 Partners†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦5 Advantages of the Total Quality Management to BJB†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦6 The role of leadership†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..6 Leadership and control†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã ¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦6 Approving budgets†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..7 Introduction BJB is a manufacturing firm that produces car radios to be used in many types of cars. The firm needs to monitor and improve its quality management by putting in place a total quality management process. Current situation The following are some of the areas that are of concern to the BJB’s TQM. BJB does not involve employees in its total quality management. BJB does not have a way to involve consumers to improve its product quality. There are no repetitive processes to make sure that the production system is continually improved to increase quality and reduce costs For the BJB to be able to access the new market and increase its market segment, it needs to be able to produce high quality produc ts across its product range. The products are a range of car radios for different kinds of cars. Accessing the new market will need a solid Total Quality Management System that will improve the production and increase quality of the products produced by the firm. Proposed total quality management The proposed TQM for BJB will consider the following factors: New Market BJB is trying to access new markets, and to do this it has to have products that are competitive in terms of their quality. The fact that BJB is trying to access new markets also means that the firm has to know not only how to increase the quality but also how to minimize costs so as to use cost advantage to sell at lower prices. The products produced by BJB are not used directly by the consumers, but have to be used along with other products (i.e. vehicles), and BJB needs to consider this in planning its TQM. In this regard, BJB’s Total Quality Management has to ensure that it is will be synchronized with the m anufacturers of motor vehicles. This will be useful in making sure that the products of BJB are compatible with the products of all the car manufacturers, and this will be important because without this compatibility, there can be no market for the BJB’s products. The TQM Process management The process will be monitored to make sure that there are no bottlenecks that may make the system less efficient. BJB should be professionally responsible in making sure that the manufacturing process is incrementally improved every month, to make sure that all inefficiencies are

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Financial Management in Nonprofit Organizations Assignment

Financial Management in Nonprofit Organizations - Assignment Example Solid financial management obligates the organization to take part in long-term strategic planning as well as short-term operations planning and should become part of the organizations continuous process of planning. A solid financial management is important in assisting organizations to ensure they use their resources in an effective and efficient manner in order to achieve and fulfill the commitments that have been identified by the stakeholders. It also assists the organization to have more accountability to its donor, as well as well as other stakeholders, which will increase the respect and confidence of the agencies that fund it, its partners along with its beneficiaries. Lastly, it can assist the organization to gain a competitive advantage in regards to increasingly scarce resources, which will be important when preparing for long-term financial sustainability. Financial management is seen as an important path that should be taken by all organizations in their pursuit for success. The aim of this paper is to provide an insightful account of applying financial management approaches to non-profit organizations while comparing with for-profit firms regardless of the fact that the strategic management approaches for both organizations are the same. Nonetheless, a non-profit firm typically functions in a monopolistic setting that provides commodities with low measurability while being reliant on external financial sources. The non-profit industry is experiencing growth and this creates a need to appreciate its efficiency with governance being vital to the stakeholders, donors and tax authorities among others. A non-profit firm is an organization that is exempted from taxes that is created with the main aim of providing services to the public without making profits. In order to be classified as a non-profit firm, an organization

Saturday, August 24, 2019

The history of the number zero Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

The history of the number zero - Research Paper Example For instance, the numbers 2011 and 211 represent two different numbers and have completely different sense. Secondly, zero is used in its form as a number itself i.e. 0. Both the above mentioned uses of zero have been exceedingly important. Yet, the two above described uses of zero cannot report historical evidence of creation of zero. It would not have been so easy for the term and idea behind the invention of the number to be widely accepted and used. The number and term zero has not been spontaneously derived concept. It took a huge period to develop the concept and use of zero as a name and a symbol (O'Connor and Robertson, 2000). Zero as a number, symbol and a concept has been indeed important and is known possibly worldwide for its significant usage. The recognition, apprehension and functioning of zero has been the fundamental of the world now that today, zero fulfils a key role in mathematics as the real numbers, additive identity of the integers, and a lot of other algebraic structures. In addition, the concept of zero can be employed in calculus, accounting, finance, statistics, computers, and particularly in today's connected world. The development of zero from being merely a placeholder to the driver of calculus has crossed centuries, and involved diverse and extensively great cognitive thinking, both in extent and scope globally (Kaplan and Seife, 2002). As a concept, zero indicates ‘nothing’ or ‘naught’. â€Å"How can nothing be something?† is a question that ancient Greeks asked themselves. Records have shown that they seemed to be uncertain about the interpretation of zero as a number. The creation and status of zero has led to philosophical and religious arguments by Middle-ages (Bourbaki, 1998). As a matter of fact, today’s Arabic number system has originated in India, but is comparatively newly developed. From the beginning, people have been labeling amounts and measures with a variety of figures and sy mbols throughout centuries, while facing difficulties in performing most elementary arithmetic computations with those number systems. A counting system had been first developed by the Sumerians as they wanted to mark and keep the accounts of the quantities of their goods such as cattle, horses, and donkeys. The drawback regarding the Sumerian system was that the system was positional which means that the positioning of a specific symbol as compared to others denoted its value. Around 2500 BC, Akkadians handed down The Sumerian system and in 2000 BC, the same was done by the Babylonians. The evolution of zero seems to have initiated from the Babylonians which has crossed may centuries and was very different from the symbol know to us today. Babylonians were the first to ideate a mark to to make it realized that a number had been missing from a column. For instance, 0 in the number 2011 expresses that there are no hundreds in that number. By that time zero did not have any symbol to denote the space. Although Ancient Greeks have brought many famous mathematicians who learned the basic principles of their mathematics from the Egyptians and they had a number system, but that system lacked a placeholder like the one of Babylonians so they could not suggest a name to indicate that empty space. They might have contemplated the name to denote that place between numbers, but there is no such evidence to draw conclusion that the symbol even

Friday, August 23, 2019

The necessity of a minimum wage based on the cost of living Essay

The necessity of a minimum wage based on the cost of living - Essay Example The current minimum wage set up by the federal government in 2009 is $7.25/hour calculating up to $15, 080 for a full time worker who works 40 hours per week per year round. The federal minimum wage is categorized into non-tipped, tipped and youth. The non-tipped wage rate is higher as compared to the minimum wage rate of tipped workers. The tipped workers make tips over and above their wage therefore their minimum wage is $2.13 that is lower than the above-mentioned non-tipped rate. The youth minimum wage rate entails all the teens i.e. people below the age of 20 years and ranges between the tipped and non-tipped rate of $4.25. The economics of the world is changing posing a question on the feasibility of the minimum wage laws. The increase in inflation, unemployment rates and the economic downturn makes it difficult for the worker to maintain a standard of living that is above the poverty line. The increase in the minimum wage has been in debate over many years now with the economists questioning the viability of the law and the level of the minimum wage. Thus the minimum wage should be parallel to the cost living and as it lacks to support the living standard it should be increased to fill in the gap. Initially, the minimum wage was enacted in 1938 by the US president Franklin Roosevelt in order to protect the workers from the effects of the great depression. The law helped in keeping the workers above the poverty line, thus helping the economic through an increased purchasing power. The United States Department of Labor shows the minimum wage prevailing in all states of America. The economic and political clashes regarding the minimum wage figure has been going on since the inception of the law. The minimum wage prevailing in a state or territory can be either less or more than the federal minimum. For example, the minimum wage rate for Arizona is $7.90 whereas that of Georgia is $5.15 applicable to employers with six or

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Cvs Annual Report Essay Example for Free

Cvs Annual Report Essay Executive Summary/Company History/Products and Services CVS/Pharmacy has shown a consistent growth for the last three years. Three years ago CVS/Pharmacy has merged with Longs Pharmacy and Caremark to form the largest retail pharmacy chain in the United States. CVS/Pharmacy- CVS/Pharmacy began operations in 1963, and added the pharmacy department in 1967. In 2007, CVS merged with Caremark Rx, Inc. Finally, in 2008, CVS bought the Longs Drug Store chain. CVS has over 7000 stores(Cvs.com, 2010). At the end of 9 months of 2010, the company has lost 9. 25% against 2009 net income. However, the company has increased their assets and liabilities by .1% against 2009 figures(Cvs.com, 2010). As the company stands now in trends, Net revenues for this 7,100-store drugstore retailer were $23.9 billion for Q3 2010, down 3.1% from $24.6 billion in the prior years period. Poor performance by the companys Pharmacy Services segment—its revenues dropped 8.5%, to $11.9 billion—was a major contributor to the companys woes. CVS Retail Pharmacy segment revenues actually increased 4.1%, with total same-store sales climbing 2.5%(Trendwatch, 2010). CVS/Pharmacy is in the process of transitioning their leadership at CEO. Tom Ryan will be stepping down at the end of the year as CEO, and Larry Merlo will be promoted to CEO. Tom Ryan has been the CEO of CVS/Pharmacy Inc. since 1994, and it has been the consistency at the top that has lead to the expansion of CVS/Pharmacy as being largest retail pharmacy chain in the United States. Now that Toms tenure is coming to a close, a new dawn is  occurring for the corporation with Larry Merlo taking the helm. Competitor Analysis In the retail pharmacy industry, there are only three pure pharmacy firms: CVS/Pharmacy, Walgreens, and Rite-Aid. Pure pharmacy firms are pharmacy retailers whose business is built around the pharmacy. Wal-Mart, Kroger, and local grocery stores have pharmacies as an extension of their business plan, but it is not the focus of their company. CVS/Pharmacy and Walgreens have been battling over the top position for years, and Rite-Aid has been ranked at a steady third in the market place. Walgreens- Walgreens is CVS/Pharmacys chief competitor. Founded in 1901, Walgreens is considerably older. Unlike CVS/Pharmacy, Walgreens began with the pharmacy department. With 6000 stores, Walgreens is smaller than CVS. In 2010, Walgreens has increased sales against last year by 6.4%, and net earnings by 4.2%(Walgreens.com, 2010). Moreover, they have posted 36 straight years of sales gains, and 35 straight years of dividend payments(Walgreens.com, 2010). Finally, Walgreens has posted net earnings for 5 consecutive years. Despite Walgreens smaller size, it has a bigger market share at 31.2% compared to CVS/Pharmacys 25%(Wikinvest.com, 2010). The last 10 years has been the first decade that a Walgreens family member was not at the helm of the Walgreens Pharmacy chain. Charles Walgreens retired from the CEO position in 1998, but stayed on a member of the board of directors. Mr. Walgreens will officially retire for the company this year. Gregory D. Wasson is the Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer. Mr. Wasson has worked with Walgreens for 31 years. In conclusion, Walgreens CVS/Pharmacy are the giants in retail pharmacy. Their strengths, weaknesses, successes, and failures have brought them to a virtual dead heat. The purpose of this research is analyze the financial strength of both to determine which is in the best financial health. Common Size Statements We will first compare CVS/Pharmacy and Walgreens through common size financial statements. Commons size financial statements allow for comparisons to be made between companies of different sizes and volumes in order to see the true performance. CVS/Pharmacy has over 7000 stores, and Walgreens Pharmacy only has 6000 stores. The difference in size will have an  impact on expense, revenue, and income. Every company plans to get the most out of every dollar spent. Consequently, we will be comparing the their financial performance from 2007-2009. From the beginning, Walgreens has yielded a better gross profit by an average of 8% over CVS/Pharmacy. Gross profit is the amount left over after cost of goods sold is taken from revenue. Although, both have been steady with their percentage gross profit, CVS/Pharmacy 21% Walgreens 28%, Walgreens has gained more. However, Walgreens celebration is short lived because the balance statement is more than gross profit. In fact the 8% edge in gross profit they gave back in operating expenses. Walgreens operating expenses took, on average, 22.5% away from their total revenue. CVS/Pharmacy operating expenses took only 14.5% away from their total revenue. Moreover, other indicators of return on investment to the company are higher for CVS/Pharmacy than Walgreens. CVS/Pharmacy has had a higher operating income than Walgreens since 2007. For the last two years CVS/Pharmacy has posted higher income before taxes than Walgreens. Finally, the biggest trend difference between the two firms is that CVS/Pharmacys net income has increased three years in a row, while Walgreens net income has steadily decreased three years in a row. As a company, CVS/Pharmacy received a 20% gross profit margin. The next biggest payment went to operating expenses at 14.12%. After the expenses, income before taxes and operating profit account for 13% and net income accounts for nearly 4%. In 2009 alone, Walgreens gross profit and operating expenses nearly cancel each other out. There is only a 4% variance between gross profit and operating expenses for Walgreens. Operating profit and income before taxes accounts for only 10% of the revenue, while Walgreens net income accounts for barely over 3%. On the key financial statements, Walgreens performance has been diminishing over the last three years, and CVS/Pharmacys performance has risen. The reason behind the growing strength of CVS/Pharmacy has been the general, consistent financial growth. This will be illustrated by the financial ratios. Liquidity is the firms ability to meet its current obligations(Marshall, McManus, Vielle, 2010). Working capital is the excess of a firms current assets over its current liabilities(2010). In this case, Walgreens has higher working capital than CVS/Pharmacy. On other tests of liquidity,  Walgreens out performs CVS/Pharmacy. Walgreens has a higher current ratio, acid test ratio, and they turn over their assets 8 more times a year than CVS/Pharmacy. Although Walgreens has yielded their lowest net income in three years, they have a high comparable liquidity. Moreover, the higher net income for CVS/Pharmacy has not translated into higher liquidity. However, the increased in income has translated into a higher inventory turnover for CVS/Pharmacy. Conclusion The findings of this paper are illustrating the transition in the marketplace between CVS/Pharmacy and Walgreens. For the last 20 years, these retail pharmacy firms have battled for supremacy in the industry. Over the last decade, CVS/Pharmacy has had one Chief Executive Officer, Tom Ryan. However, since Tom Ryan took over in 1999, Walgreens has had 3 CEO changes. The result of inconsistency in their leadership has translated to a lower return on investment. Walgreens has higher liquidity, but they have shown three years of decreasing net income. As a result, they are getting weaker as an organization. However, CVS/Pharmacy has shown consistent growth over the last three years. Their increasing strength has been represented by their purchases of Longs Pharmacy and Caremark. It is my conclusion that this trend will continue

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Tata Essay Example for Free

Tata Essay Tata motors has two major market segment that it aims to penetrate with its line of vehicle that it produces. One target is the low income families and individuals looking to purchase a first car. This target group mostly concentrates itself in the developing nations such as China and India, Tata’s own home country. Tata’s offering of models such as the Nano and the Indica caters for this segment. This target segment also has been the most widely publicized target of Tata Motors. The other segment Tata targets is on the complete opposite side of the economic spectrum. This target segment also has been the most widely publicized target of Tata’s. Tata’s second target segment is the wealthy individuals and families looking to purchase luxurious cars. Tata targets this group with their offering of Land Rover and Jaguar lines of automobiles. Both of these highly recognized and respected brand name vehicles were recently acquired by Tata from Ford Motors in 2008. In order to cater itself to two such divergent groups, Tata motors offers different value proposition to each. The value proposition it offers to the first group, the low income individuals and families, is to offer a line of vehicles that are affordable while still being safe. This value proposition was clearly evident and communicated when the Nano was announced for release in 2009. However, since then the Nano has become somewhat of publicity nightmare for Tata as it failed to deliver these proposed value propositions and satisfy its consumers. This unfortunate event became widely publisized in front of an eager world audience still awe struck at Tata’s initial daring proposition. In reality, Nano’s market price started at $2900, a whopping 45% increase from the initial suggested price of $2000 (Bajaj, 2010). Nano also revealed itself to possess a serious design flaw in its electrical system and numerous Nanos were shown going ablaze on the news around the world. Tata Motors’ failure to meet its own initial proposition has been blamed on numerous factors from rising metal costs to insufficient management planning (Eyring, 2011). Consumers have reacted very negatively to such a public failure and Tata Motors’ seeming disability to live up to its initial promise and value proposition to them. Sales were affected badly as Tata announced that it had sold only 509units of Nano in November 2010. (Bajaj, 2010)Faced with such a threatening decline in sales number Nano has added another dimension to affordability, one of its proposed value propositions. Using its vast network and influence in India, Tata has started to sell Nano outside of its dealerships. These new locations include places such as grocery retail locations and brings these cars closer to the people it targets. Tata has also said that it is actively seeking reasonable financing plans to help its customers make the car more affordable (Mint. , 2011). As rollout of their new model Indica progresses in China, many are waiting to see if the lessons learned in India will allow Tata Motors to fully deliver its value propositions to this customer segment (Accord Fintech, 201). The other market segment Tata Motors targets is the wealthy individuals and families looking to buy a luxury car. These offerings are represented by their Land Rover and Jaguar lines (Tata Group). The value proposition offered to this segment is to provide automobiles that consumers can trust and depend upon while giving them a sense of high-class self-satisfaction. As a brand name previously belonging to Ford motors and less recognized as a â€Å"Tata brand† than its Nano and Indica lines, these two brands have largely escaped the recent escapades brought on by Tata’s previously discussed public failures. Tata has expressed a hope to finance their long term projects with the steady incomes coming from these two lines (Tata Group, 2010).

Empowering Users of Health Social Care Services

Empowering Users of Health Social Care Services Table of Contents Introduction Case Study 1 Case Study 2 Question 1 Analyzing the presenting factors affecting decisions to self-medicate The risks most likely to occur Measures to minimize the risk Advantages and Disadvantages of Jean’s self-medication Should Jean be encouraged to self-medicate at this time Case Study 3 Question 2 Question 3 Question 4 Question 5 Question 6 Conclusion Bibliography Introduction With the passage of laws and legislations, organizations in the health and social care sector have adapted their policies and systems to ensure the service users’ rights. Increasing importance is being given to promoting and maximizing the empowerment of service users in residential cares. Factors affecting loss of independence, non-participation and social exclusion of service users are being addressed with greater importance. Organizations are adapting according to the needs of the users. Case Study 1 Care plan: Goals of need Desired Outcomes Ways of achieving it Who is responsible Time Scale Employment Improved self-respect Partnership with day center Care Manager 2 months Entertainment Decreased level of stress and boredom Engaging in creative activities Care Manager 2 months Social Interaction and Emotional Needs Increased level of belongingness and connecting to other residents Engaging in group activities Care Manager 4 months During the last 20 years or so there have been many changes in the health and social caresystems. The catalyst for changes has been the legislations and laws to ensure and maximize the rights of service users. With the passage of such legislations organizations had to change their policies and practices. And thus the organizations had to follow a standard of service to sustain. These legislations have given increasing amount of rights and empowerment to the users. The NHS and community act of 1990 introduced a system of care which encouraged users to exercise their rights and make informed decisions about their health care. (Thomas, Mason, Ford) The acceptance of these laws made service providers design their services centering on the needs of the individual. And therefore, has brought significant changes in company policies and practices. Another legislation promoting the rights of users is human rights act of 1998. (Thomas, Mason, Ford) It has given the recourse to individuals wi thin UK courts if they feel their rights have been infringed. It includes 16 rights including right to life, right to freedom, security and right to a fair trial. While making policies organizations have to be aware this act, and realize every person has the same right. The organization will need to make sure one person’s rights are not infringed while maintaining another person’s rights. Participation and independence of users is vital to achieve the best possible outcome. Organizations promote service users’ participation by implementing an effective care planning system. A care plan is a written documentation of an individual’s fundamental needs and desired outcomes. It also includes how the desired outcomes will be attained. In managing the process, it is central to carefully consider the individual in the process. To promote participation of residents, the organization needs to reflect that it is planning a service around the agreed upon needs and desired outcomes of the user rather than fitting a person into the service it offers. The design and content of the care plan might vary. But it is important to correctly identify the desired outcomes. All aspects of daily living should be considered while preparing a care plan, and the process should start by gathering information from important sources. It is important to involve the user in the process. Involvement of the residents in the 6 stages of care planning is essential in order to provide better service. (Thomas, Mason, Ford) Need Assessment: Involving the user by agreeing dates and times, explaining how it works and ensuring the staff will involve the user from the early stage of the care planning process. Developing the care plan: The opinions, expectations and worries of the residents should be considered while developing the care plan. The staff will need to make sure the resident has clearly understood the process. Intervention and support: Once the goals have been agreed upon, the staff will need to start on implementation of the plan. Ongoing negotiations with the user must be considered in achieving the best end result. Monitoring and review: Encouraging the users to provide feedback is essential. It is also important to note the progress made and take into account any weaknesses. Statutory review of the package: The residents view is important; it also involves the view of outside agencies. Agreement on goal setting: The residents should be full involved in future goal setting process. The user should be encouraged to share what he has achieved. The organization needs to reflect on these stages and clear understanding of the issues should be ensured. The process should have options to monitor progress and make changes accordingly. There should be the option of trying something different if the initial plan doesn’t work. This way the individual will be more involved. Case Study 2 Question 1 Analyzing the presenting factors affecting decisions to self-medicate Fast Relief from ailments: Self-medication gives the individual quick relief from ailments. Identifying the ailment as trivial: When patients consider the ailment or sickness to be trivial that can be cured easily, they don’t go to the doctor. Rather they self-medicate themselves. Perceived Medication Knowledge: If the individual perceives his/her medication knowledge to be sufficient, he/she decides to self-medicate. Saving time and money: Going to the doctor means spending valuable time and money, self-medicating saves the hassle of going to the doctor and spending money. More control in care: when an individual self-medicates, he/she is in full control of her treatment. This gives the person an independence of care. Education Level: The education level and understanding of the risks might also affect the decision to self-medicate. Easy availability of drugs without prescriptions: The ease of access to drugs without prescriptions is also a factor affecting the decision to self-medicate. The risks most likely to occur Incorrect diagnosis: The individual might incorrectly diagnose his/her illness, and incorrect medication can worsen the medical condition even more. Delaying Medical help: Self-medication can provide temporary relief. However it can further worsen the situation if the individual delays to obtain medical help by temporarily relieving illness. Adverse reactions: Medications might have severe re-actions that are not so frequent. And the same medication might have different reaction on different people. What works on most people might have a severe reaction on an individual. Self -medication can be dangerous in this respect. Drug Interactions: If an individual on a prescribed meditation routine takes additional medications without consulting his/her doctor; the combined effect of the drugs can have severe impacts. Wrong dosage: A drug that might be very effective and crucial in the relief of a particular ailment can have the opposite effect if taken in a wrong dosage. Measures to minimize the risk Since the practice of self-medication is unavoidable; authorities need to take measures to minimize the risks associated with it. Health Education campaigns: Making people educated about the risks of self-medication can decrease the risks to a certain extent. Running health campaigns will develop the user’s skill in diagnosing oneself with trifling sicknesses, without asking a doctor. It will also help the patient to know the right drug, right dosage, right way of taking it and potential side-effects of a drug. Implementation of legislations: Authorities should ensure that laws and legislations on providing drugs from pharmacies are strictly followed. Drugs that can cause life threatening situations should never be provided without prescriptions. Clearly communication the crucial information: The drugs that are commonly takenforailments considered as self-recognizable; should contain the information on their packaging about how to take the drugs,how they react when taken with other drugs, the side-effects as and how tomonitor them, how long the drug can be taken, the dosage above which the drug can become dangerous etc. Advantages and Disadvantages of Jean’s self-medication Self-medication can be favorable for patients, healthcare specialists, and the pharmaceutical industry if the drugs are used in the proper way. However, it can create life threatening situations as well. Advantages: Self-medication givesJean greater independence and empowerment in making decisions about treatment of minor sicknesses. It helps Jean to prevent ailments that do not require a doctor. It helps her save precious time and money. Disadvantages: She has the risk of misdiagnosing a disease. She might take drugs in the wrong doses. The drugs can have side effects that might not be frequent and apparent at the beginning, but they might gradually develop life-threatening illnesses without showing any symptoms. The drugs might have adverse reaction while taken with other drugs. If she takes self-medications and temporarily treats ailments avoiding professional help when it is necessary, the ailment might become more severe. This might ultimately cause her to spend more money. Should Jean be encouraged to self-medicate at this time No, Jean shouldn’t be encouraged to self-medicate at this time. She has just been discharged from the hospital and she might not be fully recovered. The drugs that she took during her stay at the hospital might still have effects on her body and self-medication may have adverse reactions with those drugs. Also, before her admission at the hospital she had faced difficulty sleeping and had been forgetful. These could be signs of side-effects caused by self-medications which weren’t apparent at the beginning. But due to prolonged duration of self-medicating these problems have manifested over the years without showing prior symptoms. Continuing her self-medication at this time would be very risky because of these reasons. Case Study 3 Question 2 When a person reaches adulthood his/ her nutritional needs reduce. Generally, adults need to eat a healthy diet containing carbohydrates such as bread, potatoes, rice or pasta, protein such as meat, eggs, cheese or à ¯Ã‚ ¬Ã‚ sh, and fruit and vegetables. The intake of fatty and sugary foods should be little.To support Mr. H in meeting his dietary needs, it is essential to recognize if he has any deficits as well. With the help of a nutritionist, his dietary needs should be properly identified. A chart should be made listing the daily nutrients necessary for Mr. H and the foods that can meet these needs. However, the care doesn’t end there. Good Nutritional care doesn’t only include providing safe and nutritious food according to the specific needs of the individual. It goes beyond that. Mr. H should be provided what he wants, when he wants, and where he wants it. And in doing so, maintain the safety of the Mr. H and others around him should be ensured. Moreover, it is fundamental in providing quality service to ensure that Mr. H’s choices are respected and heard, and his independence is promoted. Since Mr. H has mood swings, however; it might not be possible to listen to his every whim. But it should be made sure that he doesn’t feel frustrated. As he is forgetful, it is necessary to make sure he takes his food in time. And keeping a track of his food intake will also be useful. It is also necessary to make his meal times enjoyable. It might have greater and significant impact in his mental health. Dining with other members might also improve his learning abilities and social skills. Providing quality service entails giving the service user independence and empowerment. Because of this, it is important to support Mr. H to cook his meal. It will make him feel empowered and give control. Also, not giving him the chance to cook might make him frustrated which might cause him to do something harmful to others and himself. Since he is semi-independent, it is necessary to appoint a supervisor to make sure he doesn’t harm himself or others. The materials used to cook or cut the ingredients should be safeguarded. He should be under constant supervision the whole time. Question 3 Risk taking can be petrifying, for the individual concerned as well as the family members. According to the National Minimum Standard relating to risk states that service users should be supported to take risks as they are free to lead an independent lifestyle. By following a system and identifying how risks can be analyzed and lessened, calculated risks can be taken. There can be various benefits of risk management for the service users including learning new skills, amplified independence, self-esteem and participation. (Thomas, Mason, Ford)The risk management systems and policies should include recording recommendations and actions. A good risk assessment tool should be used, one that is not too lengthy but user friendly. Finally, review is also a crucial point in risk management. Putting all the policies at work, more responsible risks can be taken. Question 4 The management of medication is perhaps one of the most precarious tasks of a care worker. Regulation13 of theHealthandSocialCareAct2008talks about the management of medication in a residential care. It mentions that the registered individual is supposed to protect users against the associated risks resulting from unsafe use of medications, by different means of necessary arrangements for obtaining, recording, using, safe keeping, safe administration and disposal of medicines used for the purpose of the regulated activity. (The Health and Social Care Act 2008 (Regulated Activities) Regulations 2010) People who follow this regulation will managemedicinescarefullyandappropriately,make surethatmedicinesareprescribedandgivenbypeoplesafely,maintain the guidanceonusing medication in a safe way. The management of medication follows a standard procedure including receipt, recording, storage, handling, administration and disposal. (Thomas, Mason, Ford). Receipt involves identifying what is required for each service user and attaining those medications. A clear ordering system should be maintained in order to ensuring effectiveness of the process. Clear records should be kept about medications of individuals, taking into account the confidentiality issues. Medications are personal information and should be kept confidential. The record should be in accordance with data protection act and National Minimum Standards. Planning storage of medication is very important. All medications should be under lock and key. Medicines should be taken out of the locked cabinet only when required and should be put back in it immediately after using. Question 5 Effective communication is the basis for involving service users in the decision-making process. For data to be valuable, it requires to be in a format that is understandable, reachable to people who need it. The communication procedures of an organization must consider the needs of service users and staff. a) Feedback:Creating an effective feedback mechanism can develop effective communication. By considering constant feedback from users, the organization can make sure the rights of the users are maintained. b) To promote and maximize the rights of service users the organization can create an effective information and communication strategy, suited accordingly to the needs of service users and staff. c) To make sure information is readily available, an integrated information technology system can be introduced which will enhance the quality of care and delivery of services. d) The organization should have clear communication principles including: transparency and honesty, use of apt language and variety in approaches of communication; compassion and understanding; effective listening. e) The organization should provide training for staff on how to communicate with users and care workers. f) It should develop efficient procedures for obtaining valid consent for examination, treatment and/or care; h) The organization canpublish a range of updated information about services, situations, and treatment, care and support options available. Question 6 Viewing people in residential cares as passive recipients of care, who are incapable to make choice and take control, contributes to loss of independence. Perceiving service users as powerless suggests that they cannot have both care and empowerment. Society’s negative view and attitude towards people who require social care services can also cause loss of independence. Lack of acceptance and dignity can also cause social exclusion and non-participation. When a service user feels he/she is not being listened to or being cared with dignity, the individual tends to participate less. When the individual thinks he/she has a choice and control over his/her health care decisions, the person is naturally encouraged to participate more. Above all, the general mindset of people who are around about people in residential care can significantly impact participation and independence of service users. Viewing them as incapable, powerless, and showing gestures that suggests they are differe nt can cause non-participation and social exclusion. Conclusion Empowering individuals in health and social care is vital to their treatment and wellbeing. However, organizations might face barriers and difficulties in doing so. The organization can achieve the best possible outcomes through careful planning, policy making, risk assessment, management of medication, providing what the service users wants and involving them in the decision making process. Bibliography The Health and Social Care Act 2008 (Regulated Activities) Regulations 2010. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukdsi/2010/9780111491942 Thomas, A., Mason, L., Ford, S. Care Management in Practice for the Registered Manager Award NVQ 4. Empowering Users of Health Social Care Services Empowering Users of Health Social Care Services Table of Contents Introduction Case Study 1 Desired Outcomes and Care Plan for Bob Small Case Study 2: Question 1 Factors Affecting Decisions to Self Medicate Possible Risks of Self Medication Measures to Minimize Risks Advantage and Disadvantage of Self Medication Should Jean be Encouraged to Self Medicate? Case Study 3: Question 2 Meeting Mr H’s Dietary Needs Managing the Tension to Help Mr H Cook Safely Question 3 Effectiveness of Organizational Risk Assessment Policies and Procedures Question 4 Current Legislation, Codes of Practice and Policies of Medical Administration Organization Medication Policy Question 5 Promoting Maximizing Rights of Service through Effective Communication Question 6 Factors Contributing to Loss of Independence, Non Participation Social Exclusion Conclusion Bibliography Introduction Empowerment in health and social care reflects the balancing of rights among the various stakeholders in this sector such as the users, the governments and the service providers. The rights of the user are mostly focused on with an aim of maximizing it, while government and the service providers set policies and procedures to do so. Case Study 1 Desired Outcomes and Care Plan for Bob Small Goals of Need Desired Outcome Ways of Achieving It Who is Responsible Time Scale Reduced Stress Reduce Boredom Reduce Frustration More Relaxed Enjoying Life Stop Self Harm Have calm work that he enjoys such as art with no hard deadlines. Find people of similar tastes and socialize Give recognition for his creative work and try to manufacture some success at what he does. Domestic Carer Self but Carer can help Friends and Relatives Permanently Permanently Periodically Case Study 2: Question 1 Factors Affecting Decisions to Self Medicate The main driving factor for individuals to self medicate in most of the world today is mostly due to budgetary constraints leading to the inability of these people to seek proper medical care. In the case however this is not the situation. However Jean Barlow, may self medicate here due to due to wholly different reasons. The reasons would probably be due to mental reasons rather than financial. As stated in the case she did develop anxiety after getting discharged from the hospital. Since the reason for getting admitted to the hospital were not really conventional physical problems that make people go to the hospital in the first place such anxiety and dip in confidence is very much expected. This is because being forgetful and lack of sleep is usually considered human traits and general minor life problems rather than something that requires medical attention. This social status about these disorders may have caused her to be embarrassed about seeking medical attention in the first place. Therefore in situations such as these one may easily be subject to self doubt and therefore lose self confidence. This factors will in turn cause her to self medicate instead of seeking further medical attention. Possible Risks of Self Medication The risk likely occur from self medication are widely spread. The most common form is addiction. This is because people who self medicate generally tend to do so by unconventional and sometimes illegal drugs such as cannabis and alcohol. Due to its availability alcohol is most commonly used by most self medicating patients especially when trying to alleviate anxiety. Not only alcohol is an abusive substance, what it does is worsen anxiety and cause depression among alcoholics in the long term. Although in the short term they tend to alleviate these symptoms. Such benefits encourages the person the consume alcohol over and over again causing addiction and worsening their base situation in general. Addiction in turn makes the person suffer from more symptoms and worsens the current situation. If such problems keep on persisting the person may eventually become a suicide risk. These above risks do very well apply to the case in question here. Other ways of self medication include over t he counter medicines and sometimes, if the law is not stringent where she lives, antibiotics and anti depressants. These medications also if not taken in correct doses does possess the risk of addiction along with dangerous side effects. Moreover the risk of misdiagnosis and over dosage are very common amongst self medicating individuals. Measures to Minimize Risks The best way to reduce this risk would to educate Jean Barlow about the risk and benefits of it. Although somebody suffering from low self confidence and high levels of anxiety is very much likely to make judgmental errors but proper knowledge of what she is dealing with will obviously help her regardless of her impaired judgmental abilities. There would be less risk of misdiagnosis. However excessive dosages and the risk of long term usage would tend to persist. To avoid such a situation continuous monitoring would be required. This risk can be reduced if individuals close to Jean Barlow are educated on these grounds or have access to primary care. The hospital could also reduce this risk by scheduling successive checkups in regular intervals so that she could be monitored. Advantage and Disadvantage of Self Medication The chief advantage that Jean would benefit from self medication would be the save in costs. Moreover it would save her time which she can dedicate to her other work. If more people like Jean could successfully self medicate them it would greatly reduce the pressure on the healthcare system in the society which would be able to focus its effort elsewhere to more major healthcare problems. Day to day healthcare problems such as acnes and common flu have routine and standard medications which can easily be self medicated although the risk of misdiagnosis does persist. However in Jean’s case, it is not so. Her problem is mainly due to self confidence along with forgetfulness and difficulty in sleeping. If she can successfully medicate her own problems, it is very well. The chief disadvantage in doing so however is the so many risks that have been discussed previously in detail. If gone wrong it could worsen the situation and even create new problems for Jean. Moreover the solutio n to the current problem without expert monitoring may cause problems such as addiction to sleeping pill for example which would be much harder to solve. Should Jean be Encouraged to Self Medicate? In my opinion Jean should not be encouraged to self medicate at this time cause she is suffering from low self confidence. Her initials problems may have been very standard and be self diagnosed but her low self confidence would impair her judgment and can cause her to take wrong decisions therefore increasing the chances of the risks. She should rather seek medical attention whenever she suffers her symptoms. However going to the doctor every time something minor happens may cause a further dent in her confidence leading to fear and frustration among everything she does. She may be encouraged under certain situations to self medicate. If self medication is done successfully it would help her increase in self confidence leading to an overall development in life for Jean. This can become a bit of a gamble but would bring positive for Jane if successful. Case Study 3: Question 2 Meeting Mr H’s Dietary Needs To support Mr. H’s dietary needs we need to make sure, there are enough omega-3 fats in his diet. This means there should be lots of fish in his diet. This not only deals with the attention span problem but also with his problem of mood swings by keeping it at a minimum level. A low-GL diet should also be maintained. This means that there should be very low glucose in the diet as well as a minimum of any types of stimulants such as tea, coffee and alcohol. Magnesium and potassium also has displayed abilities to calm the brain and reduce mood swings as well as increase concentration. So to support Mr. H’s dietary needs, we have to give him lots of fish, sources of magnesium and potassium such as pumpkin seeds and bananas while at the same time try to avoid stimulants such as alcohol and caffeine. Managing the Tension to Help Mr H Cook Safely Mr. H is not independent. His mood swings and short attention span can cause a variety of accidents while cooking such a meal. Therefore to enable Mr. H to cook safely without any disruptions I first need to make sure that he is continuously monitored throughout the process. He should not be left alone or ignored at any point in time during the whole event. I also need to study and remember his entire recipe for cooking such a meal. Care has to be taken that the room temperature is comfortable and not too hot as an uncomfortable temperature may unsettle him. Moreover I need to make sure that there is a fire extinguisher somewhere very nearby preferably in the room in case of any kind of cooking emergency. I would also need to keep him engaged in the cooking process and help him if he tends to forget any steps in a manner which does not offend him or unsettle him in any other way. In case of emergency I would also need somebody nearby in case there is an apparent need for any relating reason to force him to retire his task. Continuous monitoring would probably stop any unprecedented event from taking place and therefore there would not be much tension if done right and Mr. H would be able to cook his favourite meal. Question 3 Effectiveness of Organizational Risk Assessment Policies and Procedures The organizational risk assessment policies is essential to finding out all the risk the organization possesses. These include risks to the staff, users and anyone else that is involved with the organization. The organization tries to promote a dynamic method in identification of risk management by working closely with users and other agencies in order to find the triggers of these risk and find risk histories. The objective is to preempt these ricks before they occur. This assessment procedure considers every stakeholder of the organization in question and tries to avoid all manners of risks. After risks are identified the organization decides on the management technique of these risks in order to avoid them from happening in the near future. They also tend to try to consider if any of their risk management plans give rise to any further risks or harassment for the users. When all of this is done, the organization trains its entire staff, usually annually on the various risk managem ent procedures within the organization. They also take steps within the infrastructural work of the organization in order to avoid any risk. For example, setting up a grill in the room of a user who maybe prone to jumping out of the window. These benefit the organization in many ways. The users mostly get their rights as they are free from any sort of harm. Moreover the organization is saved from a lot of accidents which might have affected both financially and operationally. Being saved from these costs are therefore highly beneficial to the organization. Question 4 Current Legislation, Codes of Practice and Policies of Medical Administration Regulation 13 of the Health and Social Care Act 2008 (Regulated Activities) is responsible for covering the administration and management in care homes of medicines. The act is passed by an act of parliament and it states that: â€Å"The registered person must protect service users against the risks associated with the unsafe use and management of medicines, by means of the making of appropriate arrangements for the obtaining, recording, handling, using, safe keeping, dispensing, safe administration and disposal of medicines used for the purposes of the regulated activity.† While in accordance to the above â€Å"the registered person must have regard to any guidance issued by the Secretary of State or an appropriate expert body in relation to the safe handling and use of medicines† The objective of the regulation is that the users of the service: will get their medicines at the correct times and in a manner which is safe will have information about the medicines which have been prescribed to them and are available to them or the people acting on their behalf The Care Quality Commission is responsible for monitoring compliance with the regulations for all registered services. The Misuse of Drugs Acts Regulations also under various circumstances regulates controlled drugs handling. Other code of practices and procedures relating to this matter is provided by the Nurse and Midwifery Council and the Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Britain. The Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain in its Guidance called The Handling of Medicine in Social Care, calls upon 8 principles that should be in place for safely administering drugs in residential homes. Organization Medication Policy The organizations medicine administration policy is basically in line with the 8 principles of Royal Pharmaceutical Society. The first principle gives the user the choice and independence to choose the pharmaceutical provider for his/her medicines including dispensed medicines. These give individuals a lot of independence and makes sure everything is done with their consent and not against their will. However under certain circumstances this principle can be bent, when there is no choice. For example, the person is having extreme breathing difficulty and not in a position to communicate but needs emergency medication. By complying to the second principle, the organization’s staff keeps a detailed record what medicines are currently available within the organizations stores and all the records of each user’s medicine intake and therefore be able to refill stocks whenever required to make sure that there is never a shortage at key moments. The third principle also applies to the organization as the care workers when joining take part in a short training period where they learn to administer each type of medicine for people who are unable to do it by themselves. They learn how to feed tablets, capsules, eye drops, nasal drops etc. Compliance with the fourth principle ensures that the organization gives users exactly the medication prescribed for them and at the right time in the right way. The 5th principle states that unnecessary or unwanted medication is disposed of safely and the correct medicines are available whenever required. The organization stores all the medicines safely and out of reach of people who are not supposed to take the medicine. There is also a pharmacist who regularly advices the residential home on medication related issues. Lastly medications are only used to prevent diseases or relieve symptoms, not to punish people or encourage certain behaviors. Question 5 Promoting Maximizing Rights of Service through Effective Communication Effective communication is when the sender of a communication message sends a message that is completely understood by the receiver exactly as intended by the sender. When there is effective communication efficiency tends to rise regardless of the task at hand. This is no different for the health and social care service. The whole service depends on the user getting his rights maximized. When there is effective communication the user would know exactly what his rights are, what he will be getting out of the service and what he will be not. This will help him manage his expectations from the service and plan accordingly. Moreover the service provider’s work would also increase in efficiency if there is highly effective communications. The service would be able to provide for the user to his requirements, therefore maximizing his rights. If there is effective communication the service will unlikely to be unable to provide for the user anything that his rights cover. This is two- way communication is therefore extremely vital in health and social care aspects. Effective communication will always help the user to maximize his rights in this way. Question 6 Factors Contributing to Loss of Independence, Non Participation Social Exclusion Stigma is one of the most important factors that cause these problems for service users. Social stigma is especially for people with mental health problems affect people of all ages, at all levels of job and education levels. Society tends to have a negative impression about this problem unlike cancer or any other physical diseases. Therefore how other people judge them becomes a great barrier to the users. Not Just Sticks Stones’(Jim Read Sue Baker November 1996), a survey of the people with mental health problems in the matters of discrimination, taboo and stigma found out that: For the fear of unfair treatment, a large majority was put off for applying for jobs. Being treated unfairly by general health care services was something half the respondent felt. Harassment and abuse in public and sometimes even physical abuse was face by many Most people believed that discrimination has increased in the last 5 years but some thought it decreased as well. Due to these various problems the fear of stigma and discrimination sometimes makes the users stop talking about their mental distress with others therefore there is a communication gap and they fail to avail their full rights of the service. These factors therefore directly contribute to their social exclusion and non participation in service. Most people tend to stay at home and take small local jobs depending on their level of independence in fear of abuse from the uneducated society. The social stigma and the media terming most of them as ‘lunatics’ and ‘psychos,’ create a very bad impression in a lot of people’s minds therefore making lots of luxuries of life unable to these people causing a huge loss of independence for them. Conclusion Finally we can say that the various laws and legislations that the UK Government has put into place in order to maximize the rights of users are very well enforced and maintained. The way service in current times is designed is based on the objective of maximizing the rights of the users. Participation is on the rise leading to greater independence for users. Excellent management of risks and commendable practices of drug administration has led to much fewer service accidents and has ensured the rights of the users. Bibliography CM Hughes, J. M. (2001). Benefits and Risks of Self Medication. Drug Safety , 1027-37. Cowley, D. S. (1992). Alcohol abuse, substance abuse, and panic disorder. The American Journal of Medicine , 41S-48S. Galliot, B. (November 2007). The Physiology of Willpower: Linking Blood Glucose to Self-Control. Personality and Social Psychology Review, Vol 11 , 303-27. Kasten, B. P. (1999). Self-Medication With Alcohol and Drugs by Persons With Severe Mental Illness. Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association , 80-87. Khantzian, E. (2003). The self-medication hypothesis of drug use disorders: A reconsideration and recent applications. Harvard Review of Psychiatry , 231-244. Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. Handling of Medicine in Social Care. Sinn, N. (October 2008). Nutritional and dietary influences on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Nutrition Reviews, Vol. 66 , 558-68. The Bamford Review of Mental Health and Learning Disability. (December 2006). Promoting the Social Inclusion of People With a Mental Health Problem and Learning Disability. World Health Organization. (2000). The Benefits and Risk of Self Medication. WHO Drug Information Vol. 14, No. 1 , 2-3.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Renewal in Yeats Second Coming and Eliots Journey of the Magi Essay

Renewal in Yeats' Second Coming and Eliot's Journey of the Magi  Ã‚        Ã‚  Ã‚   Both William Butler Yeats' "Second Coming" and T.S. Eliot's "Journey of the Magi" present a renewal process, but each one focuses on different goals and subjects; Eliot on a particular person's transformation, whereas Yeats predicts a renovation of the entire world as a result of an escalation of chaos. And while Yeats attempts to present a definite picture of what he believes will happen at the time of this renovation, as a human being, lack of foresight leaves him to conclude with nothing more than an unanswerable question. Eliot, on the other hand, uses ambiguity to support and develop his theme: death is the way to rebirth. But for Eliot this rebirth, which must be necessarily obscure, is full of doubt, accompanied by pain, and extremely perplexing to the newly-born (www.fgcu* 6). Eliot utilizes a vague diction and imagery, and his narrative tone progresses to philosophical and doubtful discourse. In contrast, Yeats maintains a pessimistic tone created by his futilit y on the bleak situation toward which the world proceeds. As opposed to projecting an inevitable and pessimistic demise of the Christian era and a renewal of the world as Yeats does in his poem, "Second Coming," Eliot presents the renewal of a Magus, his way of life and beliefs as a result of the birth of the Christian era.    Yeats views the world and civilization as a cycle: the world revolves on a two thousand year period, and restarts every two thousand years ("Twenty centuries . . . come round at last"). Yeats' view may lead to an initial response of the inescapableness of the world's end, and therefore no need for concern, but his pessimistic outlook results from society's... ...Eliot's message, death results in rebirth.    Works Cited    http://www.en.utexas.edu/~benjamin/316kf...studentprojects/kiplingyeats/falcon.html http://orchard.cortland.edu/intropoetry/essaytwo/bethka(cc).html http://www.fgcu.edu/~wohlpart/eliot.html#poem    Keane, Patrick J. Yeats's Interactions with Tradition. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1987. Peterson, Richard F. William Butler Yeats. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1982. Pinion, F.B. A T.S. Eliot Companion. Totowa, New Jersey: Barnes and Noble Books,1986. Raffel, Burton. T.S Eliot. New York: Frederick Publishing Co., 1982. Unterecker, John. A Reader's Guide to William Butler Yeats. New York: Octagon Publishers, 1983. Williamson, George. A Reader's Guide to T.S. Eliot; a Poem by Poem Analysis. New York: Octagon Books, 1966.      

Monday, August 19, 2019

Tropical Africa: Food Production And The Inquiry Model :: essays research papers

Tropical Africa: Food Production and the Inquiry Model Hunger is the result of disasters such as drought, floods, the changing of the jet stream patterns and other natural disasters. They are beyond our control. It has been estimated that one third of the land in Tropical Africa is potentially cultivable, though only about 6% of it is currently cultivated. However, to change farming from a low-input low-yield pattern to a high-input, high-yield pattern necessitates the use of more fertilizer and the planting of high-yielding varieties of crops There are a number of environmental factors, related mostly to climate, soils and health, resisting easy developmental solutions. Rainfall reliability is closely connected to rainfall quantity The rainfall in the equatorial heart is very plentiful and reliable. However, there is much less rainfall towards the outer edges of the rain belt. Periodic and unpredictable droughts are a characteristic feature of these border zones. There are three climatic zones in Tropical Africa: 1.a region of persistent rain at and near the Equator 2.a region on each side of this of summer rain and winter drought, and 3.a region at the northern and southern edges afflicted by drought. All the climates listed in the previous paragraph are modified in the eastern parts of Tropical Africa by the mountains and monsoons. The soils of Tropical Africa pose another problem. They are unlike the soils of temperate areas. Soils are largely products of their climates, and tropical soils are different from temperate soils because the climate is different. Because of the great heat of the tropics tends to bake the soils, while on the other hand, the rainfall leaches them. The combined heat and moisture tend to produce very deep soils because the surface rock is rapidly broken down by chemical weathering. All this causes the food's rate of growth to slow down or maybe even stop and as a result food production won't even come close in catching up to the rate of population increase; therefore starvation and hunger is present. In the process of a flood and drought, the roots of trees are shallow and virtually no nutrients are obtained from the soil. The vegetation survives on its own humus waste, which is plentiful.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

America Must Reduce the Size of Government :: Political Science

â€Å"Everyone wants to live at the expense of the state. They forget the state wants to live at the expense of everyone.† —Frederic Bastiat Introduction: States exist at the expense of their citizens, who are not aware of the price they pay. Although people tend to view states as indispensable institutions to promote equality, provide security, and protect public goods; they often overlook their sacrifice of liberty and economic well-being due to government interference. Forms of states vary—liberal democratic states, welfare states, communist states etc.—throughout the world; but their artificial nature is the same: states only emerged through the consent of all the citizens. Nevertheless, states do not function by a social contract; instead, the few who are in power usually make decisions for all. In fact, people are frequently misled to justify taxation—believing that states redistribute wealth, thus creating equality through this process. However, redistribution does not necessarily mean transferring wealth from the rich to the poor. Moreover, government interference in the free market usually only hurts the e conomy—despite some economists promoting state actions during economic downturns. Only through advocating grassroots associations, paying attention to future interests, and improving literacy and access to popular literature can people realize their economic and political sacrifices to the state. 1. The Formation of States The concept of â€Å"state† is closely related to social contract thought. The social contract school of thought originated from the classic seventeenth-and-eighteenth-century political theories of Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau, who tried to explain the origins of civic community and political authority. Although social contract theorists differ in their conceptions of the state of nature and the political structure under the contract, they all agree on one point: the social obligation must be willingly accepted by individuals. According to the social contract school of thought, the state—the civic community and political authority—is the result of individuals’ voluntary move from their state of nature, in which each man is sovereign and self-sufficient, to a social order, where they submit themselves to a political authority in return for protection and equality. To answer the question of why individuals tend to accept the agreement and obey the state, Thomas Hobbes, the first modern philosopher to articulate a detailed contract theory, believes that states can provide equality by equally treating their citizens.[1]  Interestingly enough, Hobbes’ model of state as an authority overruling all the subjects still applies to our modern society today. What Hobbes overlooked though, as John Locke pointed out, was the reduced liberty of individuals.