Tuesday, January 28, 2020

Subcultural Theories of Youth Culture

Subcultural Theories of Youth Culture Subcultural theories of youth culture owe much to the pioneering work of the Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies (CCCS) during the 1970s and early 1980s. The CCCS make use of the term subculture from US sociologists at Chicago University, and applied it to visually distinctive post-World War II British working class youth cultures, such as teddy boys, mods, and skinheads. Sociologists today employ three primary theoretical perspectives: the functionalist perspective, the Marxist perspective and the post-modernist perspective. These perspectives offer sociologists theoretical paradigms for explaining how society influences people, and vice versa. Each perspective uniquely conceptualises society, social forces, and human behaviour. FUNCTIONALISM Functionalism is the oldest, and still the dominant, theoretical perspective in sociology and many other social sciences. According to the functionalist perspective each aspect of society is interdependent and contributes to societys functioning as a whole. Functionalists see society as having a structure, with key institutions performing vital functions, and roles directing people in how to behave. They identify the functions of each part of the structure. For example, the state, or the government, provides education for the children of the family, which in turn pays taxes on which the state depends to keep itself running. This means that the family is dependent upon the school to help children grow up to have good jobs so that they can raise and support their own families. In the process, the children become law-abiding, taxpaying citizens, who in turn support the state. If the process succeeds the parts of society produce order, stability and productivity. On the other hand, if th e process does not go well, the parts of society then must adapt to recapture a new order, stability, and productivity. For example, as we are presently experiencing, during a financial recession with its high rates of unemployment and inflation, profit and salary reduction, social programs are trimmed or cut. Families tighten their budgets while employers offer fewer business programs, and a new social order, stability and productivity occur. Functionalists believe that society is held together by social consensus, or cohesion, in which society members agree upon, and work together to achieve, what is best for society as a whole. Emile Durkheim suggested that social consensus takes one of two forms: Mechanical Solidarity: This is a form of social cohesion that arises when people in a society maintain similar values and beliefs and engage in similar types of work. Mechanical solidarity most commonly occurs in traditional, simple societies such as those in which everyone herds cattle or farms. Amish society exemplifies mechanical solidarity. Organic Solidarity: This is a form of social cohesion that arises when people in a society are interdependent, but hold to varying values and beliefs and engage in varying types of work. Organic solidarity most commonly occurs in industrialised, complex societies such as those in large American cities like New York in the 2000s. Leading functionalists include Emile Durkheim and Talcott Parsons. Robert Merton (1910), who was a functionalist as well, developed his theory of deviance which is derived from Durkheims idea of anomie. It is central in explaining how internal changes can occur in a system. For Merton, anomie means a discontinuity between cultural goals and that accepted methods available for reaching them. Merton (1968) has proposed a number of important distinctions to avoid potential weaknesses and clarify ambiguities in the basic functionalist perspective. First, he distinguishes between manifest and latent functions. Manifest functions are recognised, intentional and obvious, while latent functions are unrecognised, unintentional, and thus not obvious. Merton used the example of the Hopi rain dance to show that sometimes an individuals understanding of their motive for an action may not fully explain why that action continues to be performed. Sometimes actions fulfil a function of which the acto r is unaware, and this is the latent function of an action. Second, he distinguishes between consequences which are positively functional for a society, those which are dysfunctional for the society, and those which neither. Third, he also distinguishes between levels of society, that is, the specific social units for which regularised patterns of behaviour are functional or dysfunctional. Finally, he maintains that the particular social structures which satisfy functional needs of society are not indispensable, but that structural alternatives may exist which can also satisfy the same functional needs. Merton expanded on the idea that anomie is the alienation of the self from society due to conflicting norms and interests by describing five different types of actions that occur when personal goals and legitimate means come into conflict with each other. Conformity is the typical successful hardworking person who both accepts the goals of the society and has the means for obtaining those goals. This is an example of non-anomie. Innovation refers to the pursuit of culturally approved goals by disapproved, including illegal means, in other words, they must use innovation in order to achieve cultural goals. (Example: Drug dealer who sells drugs to support a family.) Ritualism refers to excessively rigid conformity to approved goals and means, even to the neglect of the actual results; inefficient bureaucrats who adhere rigidly to the rules are the classic example of ritualism. The person who ignores and rejects the means and the goals of the society is said to be retreating from society. (For example a drug addict who has stopped caring about the social goals and chooses a drug induced reality in favour of the socially accepted lifestyle.) Finally, there is a fifth type of adaptation which is that of rebellion which refers to the rejection of approved goals and means in favor of new ones. Functionalism has received criticism as it has a conservative bias. Critics claim that the perspective justifies the status quo and complacency on the part of societys members. Functionalism does not encourage people to take an active role in changing their social environment, even when such change may benefit them. Instead, functionalism sees active social change as undesirable because the various parts of society will compensate naturally for any problems that may arise. MARXIST NEW-SUBCULTURAL THEORY Marx argues that societies result from humans getting together to produce food. The forces of production shape social relationships. In Marxist theory, class is the most important social group in the capitalist society and the mayor social configurations are class cultures. The classes are organised depending on the mode of production that determine a concrete set of relations of production: the capitalists (bourgeoisie) and the workers (proletariat). These classes are all the time in conflict and negotiation because one of them is dominant and the other is subordinate. This conflict perspective originated primarily out of Karl Marxs writings on class struggles and it presents society in a different light than do the functionalist perspective. While the latter perspective focus on the positive aspects of society that contribute to its stability, the conflict perspective focuses on the negative, conflicted, and ever-changing nature of society. Unlike functionalists who defend the status quo, avoid social change, and believe people cooperate to effect social order, conflict theorists challenge the status quo, encourage social change (even when this means social revolution), and believe rich and powerful people force social order on the poor and the weak. As we can see, most societies are based upon exploitation of some groups by others. Those who own the means of production, such as factories, land, raw material or capital, exploit those who work for them, who lack the means to produce things themselves. Thus, capitalists accumulate profits and get ri cher and richer. Eventually workers will come to realise that they are being exoploited and will overthrow capitalism and create a communist society. In communism the means of production will be communally owened, so there will be no ruling class, no exploitation and much less inequality than in capitalism. Today, conflict theorists find social conflict between any groups in which potential for inequality exists, such as, racial, gender, religious, political, economic and so on. These theorists note that unequal groups usually have conflicting values and agendas, causing them to compete against one another. This constant competition between groups forms the basis for the ever-changing nature of society. Critics of the conflict perspective point to its extremely negative view of society. The theorys ultimately central problems are: it has difficulty explaining the more orderly and stable elements of social life, it neglects or downplays the cultural and symbolic aspects of social life because it emphasises on economics and class, conflict theorists tend to assume the power differences lead to conflict but differences do not necessarily provoke conflict. POST MODERNISM Post modernist perspectives have developed since the 1980s. Some versions see important changes taking place in society, while other versions question the ability of conventional sociology to produce worthwhile theories of society. Some postmodernists argue that social behaviour is no longer shaped by factors such as class, gender, ethnicity and different types of socialisation. It is now simply a question of lifestyle choice. Finally, Post-Structuralism and Postmodernism, perspectives developed on the French intellectual scene, have had considerable influence on American sociologists in recent years (as well as on scholars in many other fields, especially literary studies). Derived from (but largely rejecting) both the Marxist tradition and the works of anthropologist Claude LÃ ©vi-Strausswho developed a structuralist theory of culturethese theoretical schools seek to account for the apparent disintegration of modern culture over the past several decades. Among the traditions major figures, such as Jacques Derrida and Jean Baudrillard, perhaps the best known is Michel Foucault, a historian and philosopher. Tracing the historical changes in societal attitudes toward punishment, mental illness, and sexuality, among other topics, he argued that knowledge and power have become inextricably entwined. Foucault stressed the disciplinary nature of power, and argued that (social) scientific discourse as one such discipline may itself need to be questioned. Sociologists in this tradition seek not only to study the world differently, but to make the production of sociological knowledge, and thus our own situatedness within structures of knowledge and power, part of the study. American sociologists influenced by this tradition sometimes call their work Discourse Analysis or Cultural Studies.

Sunday, January 19, 2020

Profanity :: Swear Swearing

Profanity â€Å"Money doesn’t talk, it swears.† Many of the most brilliant minds throughout time have used profanity. Shakespeare’s best works were revised and edited in order to remove the numerous curse words or obscene phrases he included. The harmless use of profanity in an informal setting should not be penalized, by the assignment of an essay. Profanity continuously evolves, and has a very rich and interesting history. The system of assigning essays for the use of profanity is ineffective and counter productive. â€Å"When angry, count four; when very angry, swear.† The evolution of profanity began in the sixteenth century, and it evolves with each generation. Profanity is recognized in many Shakespearean works, and has evolved into the profane language used today. Some cuss or curse words have somehow maintained their original meanings throughout hundreds of years, while many others have completely changed meaning or simply fallen from popular vocabulary. William Shakespeare, though it is not widely taught, used a rather vulgar and dirty vocabulary in his writings. His works included subjects that some people wish they had not. "That includes a fair helping of sex, violence, crime, horror, politics, religion, anti-authoritarianism, anti-Semitism, racism, xenophobia, sexism, jealousy, profanity, satire, and controversy of all kinds" (Macrone 6). In Shakespeare’s time, religious and moral curses were more offensive than biological curses. Most original, prior to being censored, Shakespearean works contain offensive profanity, mostly religious, which is probably one of many reasons that his works were and continue to be so popular. "Shakespeare pushed a lot of buttons in his day- which is one reason he was so phenomenally popular. Despite what they tell you, people like having their buttons pushed" (Macrone 6). His works contained many profane words or phrases and as a result, were censored to protect the innocent minds of the teenagers who are now required to read them, and also because they were blasphemous and offensive. Almost all of the profanity was removed, and that that was not had just reason for being there. Some of the Bard's censored oaths are; "God's blessing on your beard" Love's Labors Lost, II.i.203 This was a very rude curse because a man's facial hair was a point of pride for him. And "to play with someone's beard" was to insult him. "God's body" 1 Henry IV, II.i.26 Swearing by Christ's body (or any part thereof,) was off limits in civil discourse.

Saturday, January 11, 2020

Manac Plc Essay

The assignment – Background information You are the financial director of a large, ficticious company called Manac plc, which produces and sells a range of standard electrical goods. Production and sales take place across a number of countries. The company uses standard costing and absorption costing as part of its approach to strategic management accounting. The Board of Directors is concerned that the company is not meeting its budgeted target profits; the managing director takes the simple view that more sales mean more profits and that the products have not been priced to sell in sufficient numbers. While you are aware that this is a possibility you recognise that the real reason for the lower than expected profits may be more complex. You have therefore decided to conduct a full review of variances to identify those areas which have not met budgeted expectations. Assignment Requirements While this review is underway and to improve the board of directors understanding of the issues involved, you have decided to produce a report to the board of directors which addresses the following 3 topics: i. The models and concepts affecting the pricing decisions taken by organisations, critically reflecting upon their usefulness (maximum mark 33%). i. The role of standard costing and variance analysis in management accounting and a critically discussion of the value and limitations of variance analysis as a means of identifying key areas which have contributed to the overall profit figure (maximum mark 33%). iii. The advantages and disadvantages of introducing an Activity Based Costing syst em to replace the current Absorption Costing system (maximum mark 34%). The report should include critical evaluation of the models and concepts proposed outlining their merits and limitations. You may incorporate logical assumptions with regard to the company and use numerical examples to illustrate the models and concepts that you propose to adopt The University policy on cheating collusion and plagiarism will be applied to this piece of work. Guidance: Students are encouraged to be inquisitive and innovative in their approach as to what should be included in this report the following may be of some use in providing guidance as to what could possibly be included, although this is in no way meant to be prescriptive. The aim of the ssignment is to help you understand how key areas of strategic management accounting are demonstrated in practice by a large, international company. This will include investigating topics from throughout the course linked to the above issues. Some of the principles, concepts ad models will be more relevant to your chosen approach than others and so it is likely that different students will formulate different approaches to the problems. This is n ormal, it is not expected that all of the course content will be used in the analysis, concentrate on that which you feel is most important. As part of your work you might find it helpful to briefly explore the underlying theory behind the key areas of investigation that you identify before applying them to report. With a total of 3,000 words you do not have a lot of room for long introductions so assume you are writing to a sophisticated audience who has a working knowledge of strategic management accounting and is well versed in business theory. Numerical example for illustrative purposes may be of use but should not be the main thrust of the work. If used they should be to provide evidence to support your findings from your other analysis of position and policies. If other sources are used remember to reference everything! Please avoid relying too heavily on descriptive sections reproducing information available from course material or the set text. It is your own logical, evaluation of the situation, the interpretation of course material and presentation, with critical analysis, of a coherent strategic plan that will attract high marks. Marking Guide The learning outcomes for this module assessed by this piece of work are Knowledge 1. Critically evaluate a range of key strategic management accounting models and concepts. . Critically understand of specific analytical skills in key areas within management accounting at local and international level

Friday, January 3, 2020

A Dolls House by Henrik Isben - 1646 Words

In the 1900’s women were not granted with similar privileges as men. Economic suppression, limited education, and lack of civil rights were the primary issues for women. In the play A Doll’s House, Henrik Isben creates the realization of female oppression through the creation of the character, Nora. Nora is a woman, whose whole life is ruled by either her father or husband. Nora Helmer, tries hard to perform the roles expected of a woman, which, however, has led to her sacrifice of individual ideals and fulfillment of personal freedom. Ibsen reveals Nora’s grasp of independence through his use of symbolism, irony, and development of characters. Nora’s first impression of the audience is being an obedient, money-loving, childish wife. In†¦show more content†¦Linde as an independent woman. Mrs. Linde states â€Å"Well, I had to manage as best I could. With a little store and a little school and anything else I could think of.† (1173). Mrs. L inde is a character who has faces being independent on her own. With the privilege of having school, she demonstrates how having freedom is a hard struggle however it is attainable. Nora’s realization of woman independence then, drives to show how she has created actions for herself. This can be seen in the conversation between Mrs Linde and her â€Å"Mrs. Linde: [smiling] Well, good heavens, a little bit of sewing to do and a few things like that. What a child you are, Nora! Nora: [tosses her head and walks across the room] I wouldn’t be too sure of that, if I were you. Mrs. Linde: Oh? Nora: You’re just like the rest of them. You all think I’m useless when it comes to anything really serious† (1178). Mrs Linde’s pushed Nora to reveal her secret. She carries out the whole project of saving Helmer’s life behind everyone’s back to show her independent capability. Throughout the play Ibsen uses symbolism to emphasize Nora’s oppression and uprising. In the beginning of the play the macaroons, were presented when Helmer asked if Nora had eaten one, in response she lied. Helmer does not want Nora to eat macaroon due to his desire to have a perfect trophy wife, and in order to obtain such desire, watching the weight is one key he must monitor. TheShow MoreRelated A Doll’s House by Henrik Isben Essay1143 Words   |  5 PagesA Doll’s House by Henrik Isben A Doll’s House by Henrik Isben is about a young woman and her life. The main characters name is Nora Helmer. She is married to a bank manager named Trovald. In the early years of their marriage just after their first child Trovald becomes ill. Doctors say that he will not live unless he goes abroad immediately. Nora takes it upon herself and borrows two hundred and fifty pounds from a money leader named Krogstad. 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In the story â€Å"A Rose for Emily† by William Faulkner romantic love was between Emily and the doomed Homer Barron; the poem â€Å"Love Song† by Joseph Brodsky gives the declarations of a man in love; and finally in the drama â€Å"A Doll’s House† Nora is fighting for the romantic love of her husband Torvald HelmerRead MorePower of Power Essay1170 Words   |  5 Pagesrole in the lives of all, forever. In literature, power can be depicted in a variety of ways, affecting different numbers of people and things. Margaret Atwood’s â€Å"Helen of Troy Does Countertop Dancing†, Toni Cade Bambara’s â€Å"The Lesson†, Henrik Ibsen’s â€Å"A Doll’s House†, and Alice Walker’s â€Å"Everyday Use† each uniquely examine the influence of power in their characters’ lives. 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