Monday, September 30, 2019

Improving Secondary School Music through psychology Essay

Music education is a field of study that involves the teaching and leaning music. Music education goes beyond teaching of notes and rhythms to development of a person as whole. Music touches on developing of the affective domain that includes the appreciation of music and its sensitivity. On the other hand, music expands the cognitive development through the recognizing and interpreting the music symbols and notations. Music needs to be improved through any possible means especially in secondary school. These have been done through participation and performing different types music. Research Focus The focus of the research is how to improve secondary schools music through psychology. There are various ways that can apply to this as the most important issue is to make music enjoyable and helpful to the secondary school students. This can be done through applying music in the curriculum to enable learners understand the concepts and importance of learning music in schools. These can be determined through the responses that can be got from both the teachers and the learners. The decision as to whether music should be improved through psychology will only be determined through the responses that will be collected. Research Question The research question is whether music needs to be improved through psychology in secondary schools. If there is a necessity to improve music, how would it be done and how effective would it be in improving the students and their capability in education. Literature Review According to Hallam Susan, (2006, p8) the Music teachers are fighting to incorporate music in class. She says that music has a powerful psychological impact to students’ lives and has a great importance in education. When learning to play instrument, it has long demonstrated intelligence and when the students are playing together, it teaches them on how to corporate and how to do things together. (Barbara, 1985,p 14) It has also been proved that music has other effective impacts to education thus advocating for the need for it being improved. (Gonzalez, 1999,p 3) Music psychology in education can help in improving the student’s concentration as well as overcoming loneliness. Secondary school students, being teenagers, music has power to help them overcome conflicts. Music helps the students in improving their vocal skills as well as motivating them and enabling them moody through out their learning. Though music on the other hand has lots of unnecessary learning, learning too much of history makes has no impact to the music learning and has nothing to add to it. This is the reason why music has to be improved and only the helpful parts would be taught in secondary schools. (Edwin, 2003, p. 25) Research methodology There are only two methods that can be used to collect information from the respective parties; -Questionnaire -Interviewing In the questionnaires, a set of simple questions is given and either the learner or the teacher is supposed to fill in. Multiple choices are given to ease the viability in responses given. The answers provided are then sampled to give a conclusion regarding to the matter. In the interviewing, the interviewer and the person to be interviewed need to have a direct questioning and responses. They can either conduct the interview live or through the phone. The information collected is analyzed and the conclusion is met. Conclusion Music is an essential subject that should be taught in secondary schools. Music has an advantage and has been of the same benefit as other subjects that are in the curriculum. There is necessity to improve music in schools as it would help the student to always feel relaxed and concentrate in other subjects hence improving their performance. Reference: Barbara. K, 1985, Music education, University of Wisconsin-Whitewater Edwin, G, 2003, Learning sequences in Music, Chicago, GIA publications Gonzalez, G. 1999, Music Education, Canyon College, Hallam S, 2006, Music psychology in education, London, Institute of education

Sunday, September 29, 2019

When Art Speaks: an Analysis of Two Artist and Two Works of Art

When Art Speaks: An Analysis of Two Artist and Two Works of Art Wanda M. Argersinger Southern New Hanpshire University When Art Speaks The Italian Renaissance produced many artists and even more works of art, but there were three artists considered to be the Trinity of Great Masters, Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci and Raffaelo Santi, or simply Raphael. While these artists often worked in different mediums, Michelangelo preferred stone and Raphael preferred oil paint. Michelangelo and Raphael were able to portray emotions in their work.In two of these works, The Pieta and La Madonna di San Sisto, these artists were able to bring to works of art the raw emotions felt by their subjects. Though their works are quite different, what they portrayed was often quite similar. One of Raphael’s works called Raphael’s Angels (San Sisto, 1513-1514), speaks to me in many ways. I was familiar with these two cherubs in the Sistine Madonna as they are often copied and hung in offices a nd homes. But it was only recently that I discovered that these two smiling cherubs belong to a larger work of art.These two well-known cherubs are part of a larger oil painting done on canvas titled La Madonna di San Sisto or Sistine Madonna. It was a commissioned piece and the last of Raphael’s Madonnas. When the cherubs are seen alone they are often called Raphael’s Angels, The Sistine Cherubs, and Raphael’s Two Putti. Most of the works of art during the Renaissance had strong religious connections and were done for the church with the intent that it would reside in the church. When we think of this period in art we most often think of Michelangelo’s Sistine Chapel.While Raphael’s Sistine Madonna is in oil, it was done on a flax covered wall in the Benedictine monastery church and was not permanent. The full painting, The Sistine Madonna, shows Mary holding the baby Jesus, sans halo, with two Saints. The cherubs sit at the very bottom of the pic ture, almost out of place. Their cherubic faces and expressions, in my opinion, belie the magnificence and holiness of the rest of the art work. They look puzzled and somewhat bored, a bit mischievous and not at all reverent.The colors are similar to others used during this period but do not contain all the colors used by Michelangelo in his painting of The Sistine Chapel. They are not bright or harsh, but rather muted. There is sparing use of red and blue, but show more use of brown and gold. The curtains and clothes are dark. The images have little shadowing, showing only under the feet of Mary and one of the saints. The lines of the painting show an opened curtain and clouds on which Mary and the saints stand.The cherubs appear to be leaning on a solid surface that is, in fact, the very bottom of the painting, which is the only straight line of the piece. The clothes appear to be flowing, captured by the use of curved lines and shadowing in the folds. The light source appears to be the clouds which are the brightest of the piece. Personally, it is the cherubs that speak to me, and not the entire work of art. I like the playfulness they show in their eyes. I like the idea that not all religious work is completely serious and that some fun exists in religion.Intellectually, I wonder what the purpose Raphael had in including them in a Church commissioned work. This work is much like other works of the time – religious in nature, done in oil, and displayed in a house of worship. No doubt that Rafael was influenced by other artists and the trend in art of the time, and yet from this one work of art, it appears that the artist himself shows his own unique style simply by including the cherubs and their quizzical looks. During this same time period, the famous Michelangelo painted the Sistine Chapel.Though he may be remembered as a painter, he considered himself a sculptor and completed many statues during his lifetime. One in particular, his Pieta, (Rome, 1498) speaks to me in many ways. The Pieta is a marble statue of Mary holding Christ after he was removed from the cross. He lies straddled across her lap with her looking down on him with a solemn face and closed eyes. When looking at the piece it would be difficult not to see the pain of a woman who has lost someone dear to them.Certainly you can see the grief of Mary for the loss of Jesus, but you can also see the grief of many women who have lost someone they love. I am reminded of all women who grieve for the loss of a child. Done in marble, the statue appears to glisten in places and yet seems darker and in others. The lines capture the image of the human form and the folds of the clothes Mary wears. The hard stone she sits upon is barely seen and does not distract from the movement of the other aspects of the piece. Her face appears shaded under the scarf on her head, while light reflects off the body of Christ.The statue shows marvelous detail of Christ’s body includi ng the holes in his hands where he was nailed to the cross. Upon close observance of the statue one can see that Mary does not touch Jesus skin to skin but has a garment under her right hand, while her left hand is away from the body with her palm up. During his life Michelangelo worked for the church under Pope Julius II and for the Medici family that ruled Rome. The majority of his work was religious in nature, as seen in The Pieta and another famous sculpture he did of David.He designed the tombs for the Medici family and also the Medici Chapel. Michelangelo’s work, along with Raphael’s works, follow the works of the time, most being not only religious in nature, but based on the Christian religion and following stories from the Bible. Both painting and sculpting were popular forms of art and capturing the body through use of religious figures played a major part in the subject matters. Whether done in marble, clay, or oil, the pieces of art capture the emotions of life, the human form in almost absolute detail, and the thoughts of society at the time.With Italy being the center of Catholicism and home to the main church, it is no wonder that the majority of the art works during this period are religious in nature. Add to that the fact that many of the pieces were commissioned by one or more arms of the church religion was certainly the major influence on many of the artists. Topalski, Art In Creation, Rapahel’s Angels, Retrieved from http://www. topalski. com/2012/artworks-in-progress-fine-art-in-creation/raphael%E2%80%99s-angels/ Garden of Praise, Pieta, Retrieved from http://www. gardenofpraise. com/art50. htm

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Case Analysis - Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Case Analysis - Management - Essay Example The strengths and weaknesses of NASCAR go hand-in-hand, as often overlap each other. The biggest weakness is trying to make everyone happy. While Brian France wants to do one thing, his sponsors and other people in power, such as those at Nextel and ISC, want something completely different. The larger argument is that NASCAR is now being treated as though it were a source of entertainment, something that Brian claims is true. However, he is treating it as such for the sakes of the audience and fans. The external environment of NASCAR involves sponsors, fans, Nextel, and ISC. These are the groups and individual people that have the power to make things happen, as well as the power to stop other things from taking place. They are the ones to supply the money and the tracks. The fans play a large role, considering there would be no NASCAR if there were not people to watch and cheer the racers on. Brian France is the person whom the responsibilities of NASCAR were passed down to, after his father, Bill Jr., gave them up himself. All of the decisions to be made are now in the hands of Brian, as well as his sponsors and the company that is attached to NASCAR, ISC. There is much controversy between Brian and the others that are helping him out; constant debates are arising in regards to what there next steps should be concerning spreading NASCAR. Brian sees expanding the locations of races and the companies that broadcast them as benefiting the audience and fans, while his company believes he is in it for his own publicity, as well as for personal monetary benefits. As the costs go up to maintain the racing tracks, as well as the team, equipment, and other goods to keep the races running, Brian must convince his sponsors and companies to keep spending. To do this, Brian must convince them of his intentions, and prove to them that it is not for personal gain. Another thing that needs to be considered is that there are other tracks already available; it is

Friday, September 27, 2019

As the international trade and contract law scholars Yeon-Koo Che and Essay

As the international trade and contract law scholars Yeon-Koo Che and Tai-Yeong Chung - Essay Example As noted by Todd, the sale of goods contract functions to articulate the conditions of a particular transaction and elucidate its particularities, from the description of the goods being sold to the place and time of delivery.2 In other words, the sale of goods contract details the conditions and circumstances which would govern a particular transaction. Given the supposedly comprehensive nature of the referenced document it thus functions as a reference point in instances of contract dispute. The nature of a sale of good contract is quite complex consequent to the fact that it may be written or verbal and can contain both implicit/implied terms as well as explicit ones. Contract law has determined that sales agreements can either be written or verbal and can embrace both implied and explicit terms. In other words, the law's position is that in the absence of a written contract, nonverbal contracts, as in precontractual statements, are taken into consideration. 3 In addition, the standard requirements pertaining to sales of goods and the rights of the buyer versus the obligation of the seller are taken into immediate consideration.4 Case law establishes the import of, and the circumsta... ave been interpreted as precontractual terms but, were eventually excluded from writing, suggests that they were not intended as contractual terms.5 However, in the matter of Pena v Dale (2003), where the rights and obligations of parties to a commercial transaction were disputed and there was no written contract, the court found, in the absence of a written contract and if both parties had acted as if there was a contract in place, the implied terms of the verbal contract are enforceable.6 In cases of international trade/international sale of goods, contracts tend to be governed by the terms set forth by both the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG) and Incoterms, while the actual carriage of the goods from one port to another are governed by the Hague Visby Rules (HVR) as amended by the Brussels Protocol, 1968. These contrcats, as stated in the above and as established by case law, may be both written and verbal and may include both implicit and explicit terms and involve the sale of both ascertained and unascertained goods. Accordingly, the very nature of sales of good contracts is complex but, as shall be discussed in reference to the case at hand, all of CISG, Incoterms and HVR attempt the facilitation of these agreements. Even though neither Ghana nor Nigeria are parties to CISG, case law effectively maintains the applicability of CISG terms to spheres outside its influence for one simple purpose: courts have found the terms contained within CISG to be generally consistent with the legal framework outlining sales of goods terms in both civil and common law systems. In OLG Hamm 9 June, 1995, the court found that even if seller and buyer had agreed to apply civil law terms to international sales of good contract,

Thursday, September 26, 2019

The Study of International Relationships Term Paper

The Study of International Relationships - Term Paper Example Waltz discusses, in answer to some questions about the value of theory, how the use of theory in framing international relations is one of the biggest struggles that students face. He uses the study of economics as a parallel example of how theory is both useful and confusing, in that it requires social scientists to separate the subject from its context. Some say this separation dismisses the relationship of other factors to the subject, yet Waltz insists that it is necessary to use this fantasy separation in order to interpret and classify what is being studied—whether it is economics or politics. He says that international relations really is a struggle with the facts, and that it is hard to create theories because the field is full of complexities. Complexities, however, do not rule out the use of theories, says Waltz. On the contrary, they invite the use of theories to explain this complexity. The necessity of theories is supported by Rosenau and Durfee, who describe it a s something that must be done, but tentatively. They also talk about the use of the question â€Å"what is this an instance of?† This question, they say, helps us go up the rungs of a ladder to classify politics into some larger theory, and thus leads us to some sort of understanding, however temporary it may be. Buzan also discusses some of the challenging facing international relations, and cites one of the greatest of them as the need to connect the field with both history and sociology. Without history, says Buzan, one is stuck in a box of thinking of states as the only actors—a Westphalian idea. Buzan also explains something similar for sociology, which is important because it suggest the idea of an international society that goes beyond a simple group of states. When discussing realism, Buzan cites its flexibility—it allows for change and focuses on the human condition. However, as realism focuses on states, we realize how other theories can collide with i t. International relations, says Buzan, is full of paradigms that we develop as a way of explaining and understanding how the system works at different times. These paradigms include Realism, idealism, Marxism, and even the English school to which Buzan is attracted. Overall, Buzan sees realism as a good starting point for theorizing and observing the system. The English school itself is described more in detail by Linklater. He describes how the English school focuses on international politics as defined by a community of sovereign states with no greater level of authority, and find it amazing that this community exists in an anarchical condition. While in any state level society a lack of government would lead to total chaos, the English school is focused on the fact that this chaos is absent in the international, anarchical system. However, says Linklater, this should not be seen as a form of realism, but rather as a middle ground between realism and idealism. The major founder o f the English school, however, is Grotius. In his discussions he illustrates this school as one that takes a middle way. It recognizes international anarchy, but also gives credit to the play of power in rational, realist thinking. He mentions war often, but also moves toward the idea of an international society that emerges from the international anarchical system, dividing his thoughts from strict realism but definitely refusing to

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Future for fisheries Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Future for fisheries - Essay Example Fishes are one of them. According to WWF, ‘two thirds of the worlds fish stocks are either fished at their limit or over fished’ (WWF, 2002). However, there are also other reasons for the depletion of fisheries that the writer has failed to mention or elaborate upon. One of the most glaring one is the contamination of water by industrial waste. Also not much attention is being given to these fisheries and many are being depleted as a result of neglect. The depletion or alteration of fresh water is further exacerbating the problem. Despite this, the short essay was a pleasant read and opens up the reader’s mind to the importance of the course. I agree that fisheries management is a very insightful course. Fishery management is a neglected topic and making such a course allows us as consumers to understand how we are contributing to the problem. I also agree that fish data analysis and other practical applications of the course would have been quite helpful in increasing our knowledge and interest in the subject. Overall, the writer has introduced many concepts in the short essay. His positive attitude towards the course was very pleasing to

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

How to increase cardiovascular health in the US population with Essay

How to increase cardiovascular health in the US population with diabetes - Essay Example Participation in physical activities among the girls also diminishes greatly as they grow up. This affects them significantly and makes them to be prone to diabetes. According to the American Heart Association, people who are prone to cardiovascular diseases range above 50 years. Many a time and often, cardiovascular diseases have been associated with men. However, women also suffer from heart diseases almost 10 years later. 25% of most old people who suffer from the cardiovascular diseases have little physical activities. 40% of women have excess cholesterol that lead to heart congestion thus strained blood flow. The adolescent especially those who spend a lot of time on TV consume more calories and they eat food rich in fats, they drink more sodas, and take a lot of juice. Some researchers have established that eating while watching increases satiety of eating, which make one to overeat thus increase of weight. Due to the curiosity of the advertisements, adolescent often take the s ugary food on adverts. People who spend a lot of time in office work, which does not involve a lot of physical work also run the risk of gaining more weight than necessary. People who do manual labor are less likely to develop cardiovascular diseases due to their physical engagements that automatically lead to the burning of too much calories. The obese people are also involved in this study. Obese people are likely to suffer from cardiovascular diseases. They thus need immediate attention for them to be safe from the dreadful complications. Seeking to know the means of transport each category of the research participants uses can help in determining whether their bodies get some form of exercise; for example, those who ride on bicycles most of the time a less likely to suffer from cardiovascular complications than those who depend on vehicles. Finding out the hours one spend in watching TV helps the group to determine the major cause of

Monday, September 23, 2019

Local Governance Modernisation and management Essay

Local Governance Modernisation and management - Essay Example In March 2001 Government Guidance on LSPs (DETRc) was produced that clearly set out the aims of an LSP as a way for improving the engagement and empowerment of local people within the local decision making process. This commitment was reinforced with the availability of funds to support this priority for those areas identified as being deprived and in most need. This paper examines how successful this agenda has been by using a case study of Middlesbrough LSP to examine the implementation of these changes. The New Labour Government came to power in 1997 with a clear remit of modernizing public services. One aspect of this agenda was the introduction of Local Strategic Partnerships (LSPs). LSPs are defined as 'a single body that: - brings together at a local level the different parts of the public sector as well as the private, business, community and voluntary sectors so that different initiatives and services support each other and work together; LSPs were introduced to bring together to bring the public, private, community and voluntary sectors at the local l... should be aligned with local authority boundaries' (DETRc: 4).LSPs were introduced to bring together to bring the public, private, community and voluntary sectors at the local level to make decisions about local priorities. They are expected to tackle important issues for local people and improve quality of life, particularly in deprived areas, by driving forward: sustainable growth economic, social and physical regeneration improvement of public services engagement and active participation of local people in decision making (DETRc: 4) One of the more difficult elements for LSPs has been to ensure that local communities are actively engaged in this process, The Government Guidance on LSPs states that local communities should play a vital role within LSPs, 'Effective engagement with communities will be essential to partnerships' success' (DETRc:14). The survey of Local Strategic Partnerships (LSPs) published by the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister (ODPM) in 2003 (ODPMa: 32) identified that satisfactory community engagement was the biggest issue facing LSPs. This included achieving a balance between inclusivity and keeping numbers manageable; ensuring adequate support mechanisms for voluntary and community sector members to enable them to make effective inputs; engaging harder to reach groups and ensuring geographical communities were engaged. The research highlighted that one of the main benefits of having an LSP was seen as the successful input of community views within the planning process though developing effective working processes and systems were another main issue. BACKGROUND The Local Government Act 2000 placed a duty

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Reflective Article Review Log Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Reflective Article Review Log - Assignment Example The new demands of the learning environment can only be met if the instructional methods remain dynamic and provide a comprehensive understanding of the learning needs. By identifying the various changes in the learning environment, the authors lay a ground for launching a new strategy for meeting the learners’ demands. The article relies on empirical studies to identify the various learning needs of a diverse school population. The article summarizes the findings of hundreds of empirical studies to identify five common needs of a learner. Ming and Dukes (2010) identify phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary and comprehension as the key elements of a comprehensive lesson that can help children to become proficient readers. Phonemic awareness is defined as the ability to auditorily identify and manipulate individual sounds in words. On the other hand, phonics is the ability of the learner to identify the letters within a word. The two helps a learner to have a flow of the language what the authors term as fluency of the language. Next, the learners can learn how to use vocabulary which refers to the language words that add taste to the language. The last and the most important step is for the learner to comprehend the meaning of the language which is essential for a complete learning proce ss. The article provides a basis which instructors can perform a close analysis of the lessons and evaluate the dimensions that they omit in their lessons. Through a scientific approach, Ming and Dukes (2010) develops a strategy through which an instructor can develop incorporate the â€Å"big five† dimension in a diverse learning environment. The article emphasizes the need for preplanning stage in developing a comprehensive lesson plan. It is a stage that the instructor lays down the objectives the lesson and the various learners’ outcomes that he must attain at the end of their teaching. Next, the article

Saturday, September 21, 2019

‘Of Mice and Men’ by John Steinbeck Essay Example for Free

‘Of Mice and Men’ by John Steinbeck Essay ‘Of Mice and Men’ is written by John Steinbeck. The novel is set in the 1930s during the great depression in California. The two protagonist characters, George and Lennie are farm workers who have a dream of one-day owning their own ranch. They find work in a ranch near Soledad, after escaping from Weed because of George’s incident. They are met by different characters on the farm that all have a dream. To be lonely means to lack friends or companionship and to feel isolated. Most of the characters are lonely and the only thing that keeps them alive is their dreams. Some of the loneliest characters they meet are Candy, an old man with only one hand, Crooks, a black cripple and Curley’s Wife, a woman who has no identity, she is lonely even though she is married. Although they are all on the ranch together, they are lonely because of who they are and their history. ‘Of Mice and Men’ is an emotional story with many different themes and characters. Steinbeck presents Curley’s wife as the only women in the ranch and because she doesn’t have a name it shows that she is not important and she is someone’s belonging. The first time you hear about Curley’s wife is when candy describes her to George. Candy uses expression such as â€Å"she got the eye† and goes on to describe her as looking at other man because of this they call her a â€Å"tart†. Through Candy’s words, we could develop an initial perception of Curley’s wife as Flirty and even promiscuous. This manipulates us by leading us into having a negative view of her. Her first appearance in the Novel focuses on her appearance. The way she acts, the way she looks and the way she speaks with others. The first sentence about her was â€Å"the rectangle of sunshine in the doorway cut off† this shows how she stands there to get attention and get noticed by the ranchers. This make us think as a reader in other way she stood in that certain place because she knows that they will look at her. Her physical appearance of â€Å"full†, â€Å"rough lips† and â€Å"wide-spaced eyes†,† Heavily made up† and â€Å"her fingernails were red† this shows how see got the natural shape on an actor. The â€Å"heavily made up† this shows that she want to make herself look attractive so the ranchers will look at her and feel love in her. The colour â€Å"red† shows that it’s a symbol of danger and on the other side the thick bright colours stands out from other things so this can make herself get noticed by others that is all she wanted. George seems to believe Candy he says to Lennie â€Å"don’t you even take a look at that bitch† this shows the feelings that George got towards Curley’s wife. She is lonely â€Å"stands there looking in† which shows she nothing to do and because of her loneliness she wanted to be loved by others so she acts like she is flirting. They say she is a â€Å"flirty† but it is the only way she knows how to get attention.

Friday, September 20, 2019

New Media Technologies Adoption Challenges Information Technology Essay

New Media Technologies Adoption Challenges Information Technology Essay Latest advances in information and communication technologies (ICTs) have continued to be a major factor that is catapulting modern society to a high technology one. With cutting edge and far-reaching developments in science and technology in the late twentieth century, Ipad, ipods, new video games, cellular phones, electronic banking, and satellite television are just a few of the ICT innovations that have taken our modern life by storm. The Information and Communication Technologies in this study is operationalised to mean the new media technologies, including satellites, telephony, the Internet, the Global System of Mobile Communication (GSM), other components of computer- assisted reporting and multimedia systems. These are new improved technological facilities that facilitate the creation, storage, management and dissemination of information by electronic means. No doubt, this wave of new media technologies within the fabric of todays globalised village has continued to pressure everyone to adopt ICTs as the whole world is being shrunk into one small entity and computing, telecommunications, broadcast and print media continue to converge on common digital-based techniques. Since the great inroad of the Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) into the global scene at the dawn of the 21st century, significant changes have been recorded in the way man does things. In virtually every profession, the traces of the ICTs are clear, bringing radical changes and improvement. Specifically, media practice the world over has witnessed a great change; and traditional journalism has been replaced with hi-tech journalism (Obe 2008). The use of the facilities of the New Information and Communication Technologies has given birth to the components of Computer-Assisted Reporting (CAR) which are commercial online databases, CD-ROM, Electronic Bulletin Boards (BBS), Electronic morgue, in-house topical databases, electronic public records and the Internet (Davenport et al, 1996). Besides, the use of ICTs facilities to disseminate news and information at jet speed, as in Electronic News Gathering (ENG) and Satellite News Gathering (SNG), have really taken journalism practice by storm. Evidences suggest that in no distant time, virtually every practice of the media will be carried out with the use of ICTs. Very soon, if not now, media practitioners will have no other option than to search the web, use e-mail attachments, navigate newsgroup, setting up list servers, downloading of web files and analysis of databases and so on. With these new communication technologies, interpersonal communication has been greatly improved upon with facilities like fax machines, communication satellites, e-mails, personal digital assistants, cellular phones and the Internet. These days, everybody is within the reach of everybody else. The emergence of the computer and its interlinked network the Internet, has ushered in a new opportunity for the ICTs-induced communication. The real motive behind the communication is to create a virtual global village where information flow cannot be disrupted. When ICTs are fully adopted and used, the socio-economic and developmental lives of the people will be greatly enhanced. The aim of this paper is to track the adoption and use of ICTs by media professionals in Nigeria. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Most developing nations of the world are confronted with socio-economic problems ranging from poverty to corruption with no solution in sight. The assumption is that one of the safest routes to escape from the problem is for most developing nations of the world to adopt and use Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). That is why most developing nations are trying to subscribe to the modern day developmental magic with a view to transforming their societies for good. The argument as to whether Africa can actually utilize ICTs for her development in the face of the prevailing circumstances is gaining robust dimension. In their UNESCO-sponsored pilot study on adoption of ICTs in Africa and Asia-Pacific, Obijiofor et al submit: In Africa, ignorance is far more major obstacles and those aware, mostly the educated and literate people in the private sector, say as much as they appreciate the need and importance of ICTs, the economic situation in their countries and general poverty make it difficult for people who need these ICTs to acquire them. In Ghana, for example, the per capital income is US$400 and the average cost of a computer (plus modem and telephone line etc) is US$1500. Also in Nigeria, to acquire a computer/modem, ISP subscription and telephone line would require the total annual income of a graduate. Considering the above statement by Obijiofor et al, there is arguably a concern over the general poverty mentality on the part of media professionals which could tend to make them see acquisition of computers as luxury and as status symbols or statement of ones hierarchy in society, as such, consider purchasing ICTs as purchasing a diamond or gold. For instance, a longitudinal study aimed at tracking the adoption of computer-based information sources by Nigerian newspapers conducted in 2004 reveals that there is a zero or near-zero use of most of the components of computer-assisted reporting (CAR). For example, no Nigerian newspaper is currently using electronic morgue and electronic public records. There is also very little use of CD-ROMs and commercial online databases (Okoye, 2004). This however calls for a serious concern on whether the journalists can appreciably use ICTs to really deliver developmental and investigative journalism required to sanitise the society. Hence, the st udy sought to address this concern by examining how media professionals use ICTs to deliver their task. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The specific objectives of the study are: To track the level of adoption of ICTs by media professionals in Nigeria To determine specific ICTs tools that is in use among Nigerian media professionals. To determine the challenges surrounding the adoption and use of ICTs by Nigerian media professionals. SCOPE OF STUDY The study narrows down to media professionals working with selected media organizations in Lagos, Nigeria as respondents. The study location is adopted because there is a high concentration of media professionals and their organizations in Lagos, the nerve centre of the Nigerian Press. Besides, Lagos is today regarded as the city with the most developed, vibrant and dynamic media industry in Africa (BBC poll). The media professionals include staff of major ICTs-driven print media (Newspapers and magazines) organizations that are registered by Newspaper Proprietors Association of Nigeria (NPAN) and the broadcast media outfits licensed by the National Broadcasting Commission (NBC). The media professionals in each of the media organisations are the reporters at all levels (including freelancers), editors, newscasters, studio engineers and prepress staff. The respondents were limited to these categories because those are the people believed to be leading in media technology in Nigeria media industry. RESEARCH HYPOTHESES Two research hypotheses were raised for this research. Research Hypothesis 1 H1: There is an inverse relationship between the cost of acquisition of ICTs and adoption and use of ICTs by media professionals in Nigeria. Research Hypothesis 2 H1: Use of specific communication strategies is dependent on the income level of media professionals in Nigeria. Brief Review of Literature Previous studies on the rate of adoption and use of communication technologies in Africa had been slow and gradual and couldnt match up with the sporadic rate of adoption of ICTs which was unprecedented in world history. For instance, it took radio thirty-eight years; television took thirteen years, while cable took ten years to hit the mass medium status, whereas it took the Internet only six years to reach the fifty million users mark (Kaye and Medoff, 2001). In Nigeria, it did not take up to three years for the Global System of Mobile Communication (GSM) to hit appreciable number of adopters and users. The universal adoption of Internet is revealed through universal access data in various countries in the region. Topping the list of countries with high internet access are Korea 56% and Singapore (44%). In the median section are Malaysia with 14% and Brunei Darussalam (11%). Further down the line are Philippines (6%), Thailand (4%), and Indonesia (1%). Countries like Cambodia and Myanmar are at the bottom of the heap with less than 1% Internet diffusion. Among countries in the Caucuses and Central Asia, the internet is primarily accessible in the largest urban centres and technical services and support are often slow and expensive (Asian Womens Resource Exchange 2001: 36). Theoretical Orientations A concept that was employed in this study is Technological Determinism which assumes that changes in communication technology inevitably produce profound changes in both culture and social order. The concept holds further that technology inevitably causes specific changes in how people think, in how society is structured, and in forms of culture that are created. Marshall McLuhan who is a chief proponent of this concept staunchly believes that all social, political, economic and cultural change is inevitably based on the development and diffusion of technology. These and many other theories related to the work shall be fully explored in the main report. The concept of critical mass theory as it applies to the adoption of new communication technologies is desirable and would be used. The term comes from physics, where critical mass refers to the minimum amount of material needed to trigger and sustain a radioactive chain reaction. The term has been loosely applied to communication and refers to the minimum number of people needed as adopters before a new communication technology can have a permanent place in the society (Kaye and Medoff, 2001). Williams, Strover and Grant (1994) corroborate: An interesting aspect of the critical mass perspective is that widespread use appears to have a snowball effect. Once a perceived critical mass is using the technology, those without it are strongly motivated to adopt it. The reasoning here is that despite the drawbacks, such as cost or difficulty in using the technology, people (and institutions) are pressured to adopt the technology because failure to do so may exclude them from existing communication networks (p34). Before any medium can be considered a mass medium, a critical mass of adopters must be reached. Generally, critical mass is achieved when about 16 percent of the entire population has adopted an innovation, although in the case of mass media, fifty million users seem to be the milestone (Markus,1990; Neufeld, 1997 cited in Kaye and Medoff, 2001). Researches have shown that the rate of radio adoption crawled along for thirty-eight years before hitting the magic fifty million users; television took thirteen years, while cable took ten years to hit this mass medium status. In less than six years of its existence as a consumer medium, Internet has reached the fifty million users mark. Between 1995 and 1997, the estimated number of US online users ranged from 51 million to about 58 million. (About One in Four Adults, 1996; American Internet User Survey, 1997; CommerceNet and Nielsen Research, 1995; GVUs seventh www user survey, 1997; Hoffman, Kalsbeek, and Novak, 1996a; McGarvey, 1996; MIDS, 1995; OReiley Survey Sets, 1995; Taylor, 1997). In 1998 and 1999, between 57 million and 64 million people in the United States used the Internet (Decotis, 1999; Relevant Knowledge Rank the Sites, 1998). In 1999, Jupiter Communications claimed that in the United States alone, there were as many as 90 million Internet users (Guglielmo, 1999). The Computer Industry Almanac claims that the use has topped 100 million people 40 percent of the population (US tops, 1999). More alarming is the Data monitors claim that by year 2003 about 545 million Internet users will be around the world (Data monitor: 545 users, 1999). The BBC has greatly adopted the new media technology in its operations. Its new media division, the BBC online, has become one of the UKs most popular website, with over 190 million page impression requests per month. Besides, it has also introduced the BBCi meaning, the BBC interactive that takes in computers and interactive digital television across Sky, ITV Digital and the cable companies. CNN and other leading broadcast stations in the world are following. Various arguments have been advanced for and against the adoption of ICTs. Stevenson, Burkett and Myint (1993) argue that the new communication and information technologies can strengthen the centralized, industrial, command economy or decentralize empowerment for finding creative solutions to local and global problems through new social technologies. Other pro ICTs scholars point out that new technologies lead to speedier, more accurate, and improved outcomes that increase our capabilities and make us more efficacious (Dickson, 1974; Florman, 1981) In terms of the Internet, we are able to communicate far more effectively, with more people and in more ways, than before (Rowland, 1997). The advancement in the production and availability of sexual material can be viewed as a function of technological advancement (Durkin Bryant, 1995; Lane, 2000). It is arguable that all media technologies, from print to the Internet, have been used for sexual purposes (Noonan, 1998). In their argument against ICTs, Inayatullah insists that ICT causes further cultural impoverishment by continuing the one-way communication between North and South and much more that ICTs create information based economy and not a communicative society (Inayatullah, 1999). Lerner and Schramm (1976) throw more weight: Throughout the less developed regions, people have been led to want more than they can get. This can be attributed in part to the spread of the mass media, which inevitably show and tell people about the good things of life that are available elsewhereà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦As people in the poor countries were being shown and told about goodies available in developed countries, they were also being taught about their own inferiorityà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦at least in terms of wealth and well-being. Recognition of the disparities between the rich and poor countries produced among some a sense of aggressiveness. Both apathy and aggression usually are counter-productive to genuine development efforts (Lerner and Schramm, 1976:341-342) METHOD OF RESEARCH This study employed survey research method. This involves design of questionnaires which were administered to the respondents. Pertinent questions that bother on the adoption and usage of ICT constitute the bulk of the questionnaire design. The methodological procedure established includes the study population, sample size, the sampling procedures, the research instruments, the data collection exercise, problems of data collection, data preparation and entry as well as the analytical techniques adopted. STUDY POPULATION The study population comprises media professionals working with selected media organizations in Lagos. The media professionals are mostly journalists believed to be using ICTs to enhance their work. The media professionals fielded questions on their adoption and usage of ICTs tools. The media professionals include staff of major ICTs-driven print media (Newspapers and magazines) organizations that are registered by Newspaper Proprietors Association of Nigeria (NPAN) and the broadcast media recognized and licensed by the National Broadcasting Commission (NBC). The media professionals in each of the media organisations are the reporters at all levels (including freelancers), editors, newscasters, studio engineers and prepress staff. The respondents were limited to these categories because those are the people who use ICTs facilities in the media industry. SAMPLING TECHNIQUE The simple random sampling technique was used to select the required media organisations for the study. Within the selected media organizations, the simple random sampling technique was equally used to select respondents within the media organizations under study. This was desirable as it rules out bias and subjectivity in the choice of respondents. STUDY SAMPLE As at the time of conducting this study, 47 print media organisations were registered by Newspaper Proprietors Association of Nigeria (NPAN) and out of the 47, only 18 Lagos-based print media houses weer still in circulation. Out of the 18 functioning, six print media organisations were selected for this study. The selected six media houses consist of four newspapers and two magazines (for the print media). Out of the existing broadcast stations licensed by NBC, four were selected which consist of two television stations and two radio stations. This made the total number of media organizations studied to be ten in number. The print media organizations selected are: Punch Nigeria Limited (publisher of the Punch Titles); Leaders and Company Limited. (Publisher of ThisDay Titles); The Sun Publishing Limited (Publisher of The Sun Newspaper); Financial Standard newspaper; Independent Communications Network Limited (Publisher of TheNEWS magazine and Newswactch Communication Limited (Publisher of Newswatch magazine). In the broadcast media, the four media stations selected are African Independent Television, Lagos (AIT) and Nigerian Television Authority, Lagos (NTA Channel 10) (Television) and Raypower 100.5 FM, Lagos and FRCN, Lagos (Radio Nigeria). SAMPLE SIZE Among the ten media organizations selected for this study, 200 communication professionals were chosen as respondents. The 200 consists of twenty respondents from each of the ten media organisations. Some of the media organizations studied do not have up to two hundred journalists, except for NTA and FRCN which are government owned. Nevertheless, it was estimated that 20 of the existing number of journalists in each of the organizations should be representative enough for generalization to be drawn. RESEARCH INSTRUMENT The main instrument for this research is the questionnaire. The questionnaires were designed using both the open-ended and closed-ended approaches. The first section of the two questionnaire schedules contained questions on respondents background, socio-economic and other demographic characteristics. These include questions on respondents sex, age, marital status, monthly income, educational attainment of respondents. The second section of the questionnaire dealt with information on adoption and use of ICTs. Respondents were asked to state their area of media practice and name of their media organizations and the department of the media organization in which they work. Specific questions about the time of their adoption of ICTs and that of their media organizations were raised. The questionnaire equally sought to know what specific ICTs tools are commonly or easily in use by the media professionals. The second section also probed into the adoption of the components of computer-assisted reporting. It used likert-like scale to really ascertain the degree of their adoption and use. The section of the questionnaire did not stop there, it tested the adoption of database journalism as well as the practice of computer-assisted investigative reporting. The questionnaire also probed into the economic aspect of ICTs, where questions that link cost and other economic considerations to the use and adoption were raised. VALIDATION OF RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS As a way of validating the instruments used for this research, face validity check was carried out by two senior university academics. Besides, a pilot study was conducted by the researcher in 2007. The pilot study aimed at tracking the adoption and use of ICTs by media professionals in Nigeria. The study was a follow up to an initial study conducted by Okoye (2004) at the University of Lagos. The success of the pilot study is an indication that the research instrument was tested with positive results. Problems Encountered A study of this magnitude cannot be completed without challenges, especially during data collection. The first problem was created by the corporate affairs manager of Daar Communications Plc, owner of AIT/Raypower who ordered the security operatives to usher the researcher out of the premises when the researcher had started administering the questionnaire copies to AIT staff before realizing that such must first pass through the corporate affairs manager for scrutiny. The managers seemingly rude approach at correcting visitors annoyed the researcher which led to minor altercations. This was later settled, but the researcher had to drop copies of the questionnaire to come back for it three days later, thereby making the wait-and-get approach unworkable in AIT. One major problem is the lackadaisical attitudes of media professionals towards academic research. Most of them claimed they were very busy to attend to us while others complained that the items on the questionnaire design are too many to answer. Some of them would ask us to wait till he finishes his report which could take an hour or two. There were instances of refusals, especially when the receptionist had to confirm the willingness of the respondents. The brown envelope mentality of the press was equally expressed here, although with few journalists when they openly requested for gratification or bottle of coke before filling the copies of questionnaire. Since this was anticipated by the researcher during the training, the field assistants were asked to use their initiatives and parley the respondents by creating much needed rapport. This eventually yielded positive efforts. Another major problem encountered is that few of the respondents, especially the senior staff had the propensity to lie about their adoption and use of ICTs for one major reason: they want to impress the researcher that their organization is standard and ICT-compliant, so in cases where they have not adopted a particular component of ICTs, they tend to say they have. The researcher and field assistants overcame this problem by demanding to see and probably take a photo shot of such facilities for the archive. For instance, in Punch, the Chief Librarian claimed they have adopted electronic morgue but when the researcher requested to see it and take a photo shot, she mellowed down and said their electronic morgue is still under construction. Data Preparation and Data Entry Having returned the survey data from the field, the data were carefully edited by the researcher himself to ensure completeness, legibility, clarity and consistency. After these internal checks, a total of 172 copies of the questionnaire were adjudged usable for analysis out of the 181 that were completed and returned. After this, data were entered and the statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) was used for programming and analysis after the data entry. The SPSS and data entry were done by a database administrator with the assistance of the researcher. Discussions of Findings The data elicited from media professionals show that there are more male media professionals than their female folks as respondents in the research work and that majority of the respondents are young persons who are within the age range of 30-49 years. Besides, there is preponderance for married persons. Majority of the respondents have first degree/higher diploma as highest academic qualifications. The monthly salary of most of the media professionals falls between the range of N10,000 and N39,999. This shows most media professionals in Nigeria earn below N40,000. Most media organizations in Nigeria adopted the tools of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in their operations between 1999 2000 and 2001-2005. This period coincided with the time Punch newspaper house sacked all its photographers and abolished the use of film development process in the production of photographs. Instead, they adopted the use of digital camera which no longer requires the use of tedious traditional dark room film development processes. Of all the tools of ICTs available to media professionals, the Internet was mostly in use. In other words, the respondents use Internet more than any other tools. This confirms the findings of the pilot study conducted to validate the questionnaire for this study which revealed that out of the tools of ICTs, the Internet has the highest adopters. The respondents are however, divided about the description of their current state of adoption and use of ICTs. While some indicated that the current state of adoption and use among them is high, another good numbers do not share the high belief but rather describe the adoption and use as moderate. From the data gathered, the greatest challenge militating against the use of ICTs by media professionals in Nigeria is the cost of acquiring the facilities. This was followed by lack of base infrastructure like electricity. Only very few attributed why they do not use ICTs to unfavourable government policies. More importantly, majority of the respondents hold that the cost of acquiring ICTs tools is high. Although, respondents gave different opinions on cost of ICTs , but what remains clear is that there is a preponderance for respondents who see the cost of acquiring ICTs as being on the high side. Another important finding is that the income level of the respondent is a barrier to their acquisition of ICTs, The data had earlier established the fact that a greater portion of the respondents earn between N10,000 and N39,999 monthly. However, the bulk of the respondents opined that the benefits inherent in the use of ICTs are enormous. The data reveal that very appreciable number of the respondents are quite aware of Electronic Newsgathering and Satellite newsgathering (ENG and SNG), Very few numbers of the respondents unaware of ENG and SNG. The respondents are again divided on their level of agreement of the fact that ENG and SNG are needed in every contemporary media organization. Very many of them strongly agree while only few strongly disagree. Highest percentage of the respondents equally opined that ENG and SNG are the best in performing news gathering functions. In the same vein, the respondents indicated that ENG and SNG have done the following good to media organizations: betterment of broadcast production quality; great improvement in broadcast media practice in Nigeria; attraction of more audience to media organizations; positive change in the news processing and techniques. To cap it all, most of the respondents indicated that the benefits derived from ENG and SNG outweighs the challenges therein. Summary of findings and Conclusion Most media organizations in Nigeria adopted the tools of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in their operations at the dawn of the millennium and of all the tools of ICTs available to media professionals, the Internet was mostly in use. Data showed that the monthly salary of most of the media professionals falls between the range of N10,000 and N39,999. This means that most media professionals in Nigeria earn less than N40,000; the average income is N25,000 ( £130). The media professionals were mostly reporters, newscasters and prepress staff, a handful were editors and top management staff. The greatest challenge against the use of ICTs by media professionals in Nigeria is the cost of acquiring the facilities. This is compounded by lack of base infrastructure like electricity. Only very few attributed why they do not use ICTs to unfavourable government policies. More importantly, majority of the respondents held that the cost of acquiring ICTs tools is high. This study concludes that the adoption of ICTs by Nigerian media professionals is relatively low, though its use is noticeable but relatively insufficient. It is low and insufficient because there are prevailing circumstances militating against the adoption and use of ICTs by media professionals. One of the most fundamental challenges that media professionals are being faced with is the cost and affordability of ICTs tools. The research is of a strong conclusion that the income level of the media professionals could not match the cost of acquisition of ICTs. This means that what the media professionals earn as income cannot enable them to afford buying ICTs tools without sweat. In contemporary Nigeria, to buy a digital camera, computer laptop, with modem and payment for Internet subscriptions costs around two hundred and fifty thousand naira ( £1000) depending on the sophistication and configuration of the ICTs tools. With the average monthly income of media professionals put at Tw enty five thousand naira ( £120) monthly and three hundred thousand naira ( £1200) annually, one could infer that it takes close to the total annual income of media professionals in Nigeria to buy a digital camera, computer laptop, with modem and payment for annual Internet subscriptions. This research is in agreement with a UNESCO-sponsored research on impact of ICTs on Socio-economic development of Africa and Asia Pacific where it was found out that it takes the total annual income of a graduate in Ghana, to be a computer-assisted journalist (Obijiofor et al 1999). The case among freelance journalists who do not receive specific salary and live on brown envelope is even worst as they survive on gratification offered by newsmakers. The implication of this is that journalists who should be maximizing the benefits inherent in ICTs do not see computers as useful compared with vehicle or calculator. In other words, these journalists see computers as luxury tools that could only be acquired when one is economically comfortable. To them, it is a question of scale of preference: if you have to feed and if you have to think of having a computer laptop, you will want to feed first, because if you dont feed, you are not likely to survive. Another challenge to the use of ICTs is the non-availabilty of Infrastructural support and one of the infrastructural facilities that constitute a barrier is inadequate supply of electricity/power. In Nigeria, the power generating authorities have been changing their names from NEPA to PHCN. When the name was NEPA, Nigerians, out of frustration gave their own coinage of NEPA as Never Expect Power Always as against the official name of National Electric Power Authority. As it is, most telecommunications base stations run on generators because electricity is a very scarce commodity in Nigeria. This hampers smooth telecommunication networks. Most places in Lagos do not have electricity for a week or more, and when there is, the supply comes in an interrupted way. This makes one to be switching from NEPA to generator which resultantly could damage the computer system and hampers the server and Internet network connections. Supporting this position of electricity challenge are Baffour Kojo, Asiedu and Lu, Song Feng (2003) in their work published in the Pakistan Journal of Information and Technology and titled Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), Internet as a Tool in the Developing World, Challenges and the Way Forward submit: The main problem with an e-mail system for most of the developing world (and much of Africa) is the unreliability of electricity and telephone lines, which are often out of order for days on end. Even when they are workin

Thursday, September 19, 2019

A Study of the Healing Process from Slavery and Racism Essay -- Racial

â€Å"A battle lost or won is easily described, understood, and appreciated, but the moral growth of a great nation requires reflection, as well as observation, to appreciate it.†-Frederick Douglass When you think of slavery, you may want to consider the effects of an earthquake because that’s how powerful it was. Like many earthquakes, slavery produced various damaging ramifications to everything around it. This included devastation to family structures and in worst cases the loss of human life; and without doubt slavery claimed the lives of many just as Harriet Jacobs expressed â€Å"I once saw a slave girl dying after the birth of a child nearly white. In her agony she cried out, â€Å"O Lord, come and take me!† Her mistress stood by, and mocked at her like an incarnate friend (Jacobs 20).†The energy released from slavery is interminable and will always live on throughout African-Americans. Although, being practiced years before, slavery became well prominent in America in the 18th century. African-Americans were beaten, starved, and deprived of their rights. It was common for them to live in dreadful conditions, and work in unjust circumstances. Along w ith being raped day by day, certainly not least, they were bereaved of their freedom. They were handled as assets and dismantled from society, as well as their relatives. And if this was not alarming sufficiently, when slavery was legitimately abolished â€Å"White America† found another way to control African-Americans, through Jim Crow laws. Jim Crow laws immediately became the modernized slavery institution. Further creating a barrier between opportunities and Blacks, for they were seen as intellectually and culturally inferior to mainstream America. African-Americans needed to heal from ongo... ...all. However, society’s dividing beliefs soon began to influence all that was to become of them. Their struggles became their motivations in life, especially as they took on a new world and found what was beyond plantations and hard work. Why was slavery and racism so powerful? They were no longer just units of language, they had obtained meaning. â€Å"White America† had become aroused and attached its emotional and physical sensations to the controlling of African-Americans. They had merely separated their feelings from life. And even so, they used fear as a shield to protect their sentiments. However accordingly, through African-Americans past, present, and growing future, a wound can never be fully healed, for you will always carry it for the rest of your life. But, through mental, spiritual, physical, and emotional practices it is easier to succumb to the pain. A Study of the Healing Process from Slavery and Racism Essay -- Racial â€Å"A battle lost or won is easily described, understood, and appreciated, but the moral growth of a great nation requires reflection, as well as observation, to appreciate it.†-Frederick Douglass When you think of slavery, you may want to consider the effects of an earthquake because that’s how powerful it was. Like many earthquakes, slavery produced various damaging ramifications to everything around it. This included devastation to family structures and in worst cases the loss of human life; and without doubt slavery claimed the lives of many just as Harriet Jacobs expressed â€Å"I once saw a slave girl dying after the birth of a child nearly white. In her agony she cried out, â€Å"O Lord, come and take me!† Her mistress stood by, and mocked at her like an incarnate friend (Jacobs 20).†The energy released from slavery is interminable and will always live on throughout African-Americans. Although, being practiced years before, slavery became well prominent in America in the 18th century. African-Americans were beaten, starved, and deprived of their rights. It was common for them to live in dreadful conditions, and work in unjust circumstances. Along w ith being raped day by day, certainly not least, they were bereaved of their freedom. They were handled as assets and dismantled from society, as well as their relatives. And if this was not alarming sufficiently, when slavery was legitimately abolished â€Å"White America† found another way to control African-Americans, through Jim Crow laws. Jim Crow laws immediately became the modernized slavery institution. Further creating a barrier between opportunities and Blacks, for they were seen as intellectually and culturally inferior to mainstream America. African-Americans needed to heal from ongo... ...all. However, society’s dividing beliefs soon began to influence all that was to become of them. Their struggles became their motivations in life, especially as they took on a new world and found what was beyond plantations and hard work. Why was slavery and racism so powerful? They were no longer just units of language, they had obtained meaning. â€Å"White America† had become aroused and attached its emotional and physical sensations to the controlling of African-Americans. They had merely separated their feelings from life. And even so, they used fear as a shield to protect their sentiments. However accordingly, through African-Americans past, present, and growing future, a wound can never be fully healed, for you will always carry it for the rest of your life. But, through mental, spiritual, physical, and emotional practices it is easier to succumb to the pain.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Alternate Worlds Essay -- Movie Film Matrix Essays

Alternate Worlds We are all living our lives day-to-day, thinking that everything we encounter is truly in existence. But what if we are all in a dream world? With many science fiction forms of media, they pose this question: Is there any way to tell that everything we do is really happening? One movie that embraces this topic is The Matrix. The matrix could almost be called a dream world. The world outside of the matrix is basically the real world, where humans are not controlled by computers. Zion is the only real city left in the movie. Morpheus, a main character in the movie, states, the world that has been pulled over your eyes to blind you from the truth. In Ursula K Le Guins The Lathe of Heaven there is also a confusion of the real world and the dream world. In the movie The Matrix and the book The Lathe of Heaven there are many similarities, even though the story lines are quite different. The curiosity that comes from both the movie and the book is the fact that the world is not what is seems to be. The main characters in the movie The Matrix and Le Guins book The Lathe of Heaven both have many similarities. The main character in the movie is Neo, a computer hacker, who is seeking the truth about the matrix. However, when he finds the truth, he ends up discovering more than he expected. After being discovered by Morpheus, he is taken into the real world where he becomes 'The One' and receives computer generated powers. In The Lathe of Heaven the main characters name is George Orr, who is a man who has the capa bility to dream things that can become reality. His dreams become such a nuisance that he begins taking prescription drugs, which later get him in trouble. He is punished by having to consult a psychotherapi... ...way to find close similarities, seeing how science fiction has one common theme based on speculative scientific discoveries or changes. There are many arguments showed that could link this book about a man who discovers his ability to dream things that became reality, to the movie The Matrix, which is about a computer generated reality. In these science fiction stories they both contain strong characters that all posses a pivotal role in each story, which makes it easier to compare these two different narrations. After reading The Lathe of Heaven and seeing The Matrix, the importance shows Neo and Orr and how they affect the world around them. Works Cited Le Guin, Ursula K. The Lathe of Heaven. New York: First Perennial Classics, 1971. The Matrix. Dir. The Wachowski, Perf. Keanu Reeves, Laurence Fishburn, and Carrie Ann Moss. DVD. Warner Bros, 2001. Alternate Worlds Essay -- Movie Film Matrix Essays Alternate Worlds We are all living our lives day-to-day, thinking that everything we encounter is truly in existence. But what if we are all in a dream world? With many science fiction forms of media, they pose this question: Is there any way to tell that everything we do is really happening? One movie that embraces this topic is The Matrix. The matrix could almost be called a dream world. The world outside of the matrix is basically the real world, where humans are not controlled by computers. Zion is the only real city left in the movie. Morpheus, a main character in the movie, states, the world that has been pulled over your eyes to blind you from the truth. In Ursula K Le Guins The Lathe of Heaven there is also a confusion of the real world and the dream world. In the movie The Matrix and the book The Lathe of Heaven there are many similarities, even though the story lines are quite different. The curiosity that comes from both the movie and the book is the fact that the world is not what is seems to be. The main characters in the movie The Matrix and Le Guins book The Lathe of Heaven both have many similarities. The main character in the movie is Neo, a computer hacker, who is seeking the truth about the matrix. However, when he finds the truth, he ends up discovering more than he expected. After being discovered by Morpheus, he is taken into the real world where he becomes 'The One' and receives computer generated powers. In The Lathe of Heaven the main characters name is George Orr, who is a man who has the capa bility to dream things that can become reality. His dreams become such a nuisance that he begins taking prescription drugs, which later get him in trouble. He is punished by having to consult a psychotherapi... ...way to find close similarities, seeing how science fiction has one common theme based on speculative scientific discoveries or changes. There are many arguments showed that could link this book about a man who discovers his ability to dream things that became reality, to the movie The Matrix, which is about a computer generated reality. In these science fiction stories they both contain strong characters that all posses a pivotal role in each story, which makes it easier to compare these two different narrations. After reading The Lathe of Heaven and seeing The Matrix, the importance shows Neo and Orr and how they affect the world around them. Works Cited Le Guin, Ursula K. The Lathe of Heaven. New York: First Perennial Classics, 1971. The Matrix. Dir. The Wachowski, Perf. Keanu Reeves, Laurence Fishburn, and Carrie Ann Moss. DVD. Warner Bros, 2001.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Free Trade and the Economy of Canada Essay example -- Economics Global

Free Trade and the Economy of Canada Free trade is the act of exchanging goods or services between countries for minimal tariffs or fees. Between countries, this is a method of exchange that is gaining more and more popularity. By importing and exporting for low fees, free trade is an efficient way to cover up weaknesses in the country and gain on strengths. Free trade is a very controversial topic that is viewed upon differently by many people in many different countries. Some oppose free trade; they feel it will cause production losses or low employment in their country. Many countries also embrace it and believe it helps create a strong and healthy nation. They join in free trade organizations or draft free trade agreements with other countries to try and capitalize on the potential benefits. In Canada, free trade with other countries is embraced and as a direct result, both business and consumers experience great economic and social prosperity. Ask any economist and they will tell you one of their main principles, which they rely on as if it were a verse from the bible, is: â€Å"free trade makes everyone better off (Mankiw, Kneebone, McKenzie & Rowe 9). To explain this, the terms opportunity cost and comparative advantage must first be defined. The opportunity cost of an item is whatever that must be given up to attain that item (Mankiw, Kneebone, McKenzie & Rowe 53). For instance, if you are a farmer and decide to harvest corn all today, you are deciding not to feed the chickens or milk cows. Thus, the opportunity cost to attain corn would be the milk or eggs that you cannot gather. When producing goods, each country has an opportunity cost for an item. They cannot produce every single item they want; some good must be given up in order to attain other goods. For example, Canada may have the decision on whether they should allocate resources to manufacture 500 computers or 1 car. The opportunity cost for one computer wou ld be the number of cars that can be produced divided by the number of computers that can be produced, which is 0.002 cars. Alternatively, the opportunity cost for one car would be the number of computers divided by the number of cars, which are 500 computers. Consider also, for instance, that another country, Japan, could produce 1000 computers for every 1 car. Then, Japan’s opportunity cost for computers would be 0.001 cars. When com... ...her developed countries. Free trade must be continually embraced in Canada for businesses and consumers to continue enjoying the high economic and social prosperity that is currently occurring. Works Cited: Bhagwati, Jagdish, â€Å"The Pure Theory of International Trade: A Survey†, The Economic Journal, Vol   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  74, No. 293, Mar 1994. pp. 1-84 BBC News, The Argument for Free Trade, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/special_report/1999/11/99/battle_for_free_trade/533208.stm, Feb 12, 2003 Bureau, Jean-Christophe, Salvatici, Luca, â€Å"WTO Negotiations on Market Access in Agriculture: a Comparison of Alternative Tariff Cut Proposals for the EU and the US†, Topics in Economic Analysis & Policy, Vol 4, Issue 1, March 26, 2004, pp 1152 International Trade Canada, Canada’s Trade Negotiations and Agreements, http://www.dfait-maeci.gc.ca/tna-nac/menu-en.asp, Nov 18, 2004 Mayer, Frederick, Interpreting NAFTA, Colombia University Press, Oct 15 1998 Mankiw, Kneebone, McKenzie & Rowe, Principles of Microeconomics 2nd Edition, Prentice Hall, 5th Edition, Jul 27, 2000 Murphy, Robert P., Who Benefits From Free Trade, and How, http://www.mises.org/fullstory.aspx?control=1429, Jan 23, 2004

Nursery school Essay

The range of provision which is available for parents to access for their children are: Pre- schools Day nurseries Children and family centres These are to be found in the private, voluntary or independent sector. The purpose of the early year’s sector is to care for and educate children and the these settings provide for babies and children which are put into a day nursery for parents/careers to go back to work. Children are put into sessional settings for social and educational purposes or a combination of care and education purposes. ‘Families requirements for their children vary some parents want care for their children so that they can return to work, some parents want to stay with their children while they socialise, some parents want their children in setting which offer services aimed at learning, some parents want their children to be in a home based environment and some families cannot afford to pay fees for provision.’ (http://www.silkysteps.com/forum/showthread.php?t=13241&highlight=scope) Because of this the early year’s sector provide many types of provisions to meet the needs of families. Other provisions include: Nurseries Childminders Pre-schools Crà ¨ches Parent and toddler groups Children centres EYMP 4 Task 3 The effective provision of pre-school education (EPPE) project is the first major European longitudinal study of a national sample of young children’s  development (intellectual and social/behavioural) between the ages of three and seven years. To investigate the effects of pre-school education for three- and four-year-olds, the EPPE team collected a wide range of information on more than 3000 children, their parents, their home environments and the pre-school settings they attended. (http://www.education.gov.uk/childrenandyoungpeople/earlylearningandchildcare/evidence/a0068162/effective-provision-of-pre-school-education-eppe) It has impacted on childcare provision as the research the EPPE team did showed that pre-school education helps the development of children socially, intellectually and behaviourally which would encourage more parents to put their child into pre-school provisions. The ‘Learning Report 2009’ Task 4 The potential effects of discrimination include isolation, possible exclusion, demoralisation, and where self-esteem, confidence and resilience can be potentially damaged . Types of discrimination are: Gender Age Disability Sexuality Race Culture Religion Poverty Education Personal features Not having English as first language Discrimination against any child no matter what their needs can make them feel isolated and different to other children. Very often children with special needs have a pretty difficult time trying to fit in with other  children especially if they are in a mainstream school. ‘All children can be very unintentionally cruel to one another and should be helped to understand that everyone is different and how this is good.’. (http://www.silkysteps.com/forum/showthread.php?t=5454) An example: In the setting I work all the staff and me promote inclusion and we treat everyone the same. In my placement the setting promote equal opportunity and every staff member respect all the children and their families. They help children with language needs where English is not their first language which helps to ensure they can settle and adapt to the setting. Example (reading and singing in their language, books and talking with parents to find words we can use) Task 5.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Continental Drift

The Earth is formed by plate tectonics continuously shifting causing a continental drift. This theory is more accepted than when it was originally published due to better technology providing better research and evidence. This paper discusses a little on both the plate tectonics and the continental drift as well as how the scientific method helped understand this process better. Eye words: Continental Drift, Scientific Theory, Plate tectonics In 191 5, a scientist by the name of Alfred Wagoner proposed the continental drift hurry. The idea that the continents are continuously moving either towards or away from each other. The continental drift is more widely accepted today than back when it was originally suggested by Wagoner. Wagoner had a hard time proving his theory to others because the lack of evidence he could provide. In the last part of the 20th century there has been a tremendous amount of evidence collected to support the theory of continental drift.Some of these include; F ossils from plants and animals that have been found on multiple continents, glaciers scars left in rocks in the most Zaire places, and you could also line up certain mountain chains together. That is a indication that they were once linked together. Also scientists have found that the magnetic fields in rocks indicate the original location is different than the present ones. The Earth's rotation and the centrifugal force towards the equator are considered the mechanism for the continental drift.Unlike back in Westerner's era, today we know more about how the earth works, like plate tectonics. Plate tectonics is the theory that helps to explain Earth's landscape features. There are two processes that plate tectonics go though; one pushes pieces f land together and the other spreads them apart. These are responsible for all the natural land forms on Earth's surface like mountains, valleys, and ridges in the ocean floor. The Himalayas are a prime example of plate tectonics colliding to gether to form a 2900 kilometer mountain range.Another example of that plate tectonics can create is the Ring of Fire; a 40,000 kilometer stretch of 452 volcanoes that is a horse shoe shape ranging along the cost from North America, South America, New Zealand, and Japan. To understand anything about continental drift, plate tectonics or science in mineral it helps to know how they come up with all this. This is the processes know at The Scientific Method, this method was not made up by any one person, but has Just been recognized as the natural method of obtaining reliable knowledge.This processes help us to understand the natural world. There are five steps to The Scientific Method and these are; identify the problem/idea, research the problem/ idea, formulate a hypothesis, conduct and experiment, and reach a conclusion. The two methods to go about this are experimental or descriptive, but both contain the same objective reasoning and process. For the research process you have qual itative and quantitative methods. Qualitative is more about observations and quantitative is more about measurements and data.Both play a important role and can be used together or you can use which ever suites the problem/idea better. After all this is done you finally have a theory that is a collective vision and has the potential to change society. Science can help us to answer questions about if we should be using nonrenewable energy resources by looking at the effects using these nonrenewable energy sources has on the Earths surface. First lets that a look at what these resources are; a nonrenewable energy source comes from something that will run out or not be replenished in many lifetimes.Most of these include fossil fuels like coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Using or burning these throws off the carbon balance of the earth's atmosphere by releasing carbon dioxide. This causes our greenhouse effect to be higher thus raising our temperatures faster than most animals can adap t. One example of the disturbance to wild life and habitat that drilling for these nonrenewable resources like oil and gas has is on the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. This nineteen million acre Refuge is the largest land based unit of all the wildlife Refuge systems.This area remains mostly uninfluenced by humans, but is under attack by the oil industry's to open it up to drilling. By doing this it would disrupt the habitats of the animals living there, the fragile ecosystem is vulnerable to long-lasting disturbances because the harsh climate provides little time for recovery. Continental Drift Continental Drift, why True? Continental drift is the process of large mass of land and rocks unceasingly moving for a long period of time, which can be explained by what is called â€Å"Plate Tectonics†. Due to the fact that continental drift is a theory, there is evidence and other sets of statements to back it up. According to Wegener, a geologist stated that segments of the Earth has made continental drift true (possible) whilst other pieces of information supported that continental drift has happened and is happening. 1. Geological SimilarityThe geology in terms of rocks, plants and animals, ice-shapes, and the outline of the land matches. To begin with, the rocks in the eastern coastline of South America and the rocks in the western coastline of Africa has been found out that they both have the same broad belts of rocks. Not just South America and Africa, but the banks (coasts) where different continents meet have similar types. This leads to the second argument in the f ield of geological similarity of why continental drift is true: What makes you think that the continents have joined in the past?At least once in your life you looked at a global map whether a geography teacher told you to or you just wanted to. If you have examined close enough, a connection between continents could have been found. One may have realised how the shapes (outline) of the continents can be sorted to form a perfect jig-saw puzzle. As South America and Africa can be matched, other continents also have a connection between them. Furthermore, there is a relationship in terms of plants and animals between different continents.For instance, Alfred Wegener (geologist) found out that a similarity exists between plant/animal fossils in several continents. However, you may argue that it is a matter of coincidence. In this instance, though coincidence is impossible by the means of animals evolving and spreading. Due to the large Atlantic Ocean between South America and Africa, s cientists and geologists are capable of stating the such low possibility of how animals (plants) can cross the Ocean. In other words, they organisms have once evolved in one large mass of land (Pangaea).Lastly, the ice resembles in several continents. Everyone is aware that a continental ice sheet covered parts of South America, southern Africa, India, and southern Australia about 300 million years ago. If this is possible, the Atlantic Ocean must have not existed. Such movements of glaciers (glaciation) could not have occurred if an enormous ocean was through the routes of the movement. 2. How could such large mass of land move? Plate Tectonics comes to light when talking about how crusts can move.Crusts whether it being oceanic or continental, they are above the mantle. Due to the fact that the mantle consists of flowing magma (convection current), it can cause vertical and horizontal movements of the crust. The process is that as the core gets heated, the convection current flows and soon lead to the activity of land. This eventually allows land parts to move but slowly as our fingernails grow. 3. Position Difference Why do not we have evidence of covered ice sheets on northern continents like North America? Simple.Northern continents were near the equator about 300 million years ago. They were a part of the Pangaea and was located nowhere near compared to where it is. 4. Why care about this? As human beings, we adapt to our environment whether it is very poor or rich, satisfying or dissatisfying, or even clean or dirty. Continental drift as well will influence the environment we live in in the future. Continents are still flowing and may possibly allow a car to travel from North America to Asia. Let's all stick around to find out, shall we?

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Managing Stress and Conflict in the organisation Essay

Following a traumatic incident I and three other Fire-fighters attended in February 2012 I decided to test GAL’s current support mechanisms relating to coping and dealing with stress, in specific PTSD (Post-traumatic stress disorder). In a very short space of time it became very apparent that GAL has no ability either within the company or by the designated external provider to deal with PTSD. At that time GAL use an external provider (AXA) as their main point of contact for any employee requiring counselling on a variety of aspects but this did not include PTSD. This was highlighted when I personally called the support hotline only to be told they could not help. Even though PTSD is quite specific I do consider it falls under workplace stress due to the very nature of our specific job role and that this form of stress would not be at the forefront if our job role was of a different nature. So after evaluation of GAL’s effectiveness to deal with workplace stress I would state that it is an area that is left wanting at that time of the original incident. Since then GAL and in specific the FS now has an option if required to contact WSFRS) to utilise their TAC team (Trauma After care). I met with the team’s leader to discuss their service and what it could offer us. We compared our current in house stress counselling service at that of WSFRS. Our service was not even close to comparable with that of WSFRS. Taking the discussions into account I arranged to meet again with the TAC team and GAL’s HR and Occupational health. The outcome of this meeting was to formalise a procedure that GAL as a whole but more so the FS can call upon when required the services of WSFRS TAC team if our own in house service provided by AXA was not capable or sufficient in dealing with a specific demand or request for counselling. The TAC team have since the meetings delivered presentations to all FS Watch’s and to other members of GAL, primarily HR, Occ Health and other customer facing departments. These presentations involved delivering what the service can or can’t do, signs and symptoms of stress and how do recognise it as an individual or as a colleague of friend. As a FS we have also set up a tracker with Occ Health to trial for 24 months to see if or how many days in the workplace are lost to stress and how that can be improved if it did become an issue. At present Occ Health do hold data relating to days lost through stress companywide but to to its very nature that data is strictly confidential so cannot be used or discussed in my evaluation of workplace stress. One statistic that was shared with me was that WSFRS had seen a 27% reduction in days lost through workplace stress following the inception of its TAC team initiative. These findings were shared with relevant departments within GAL.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Philips Kotler Marketing Management Essay

Analyzing Consumer Markets Since marketing starts from the customer, it is of primary importance to understand the psyche of the customers and their buying motives. This chapter talks about the various behavioural patterns that govern the decision making process of a customer. A marketer needs to understand these factors affecting the customer’s purchase decisions so as to design an appropriate marketing strategy. Factors affecting Consumer Buying Behaviour 1. Cultural Factors a. Culture – Frames traditions, values, perceptions, preferences. E.g. Child learning from family & surroundings. b. Sub-culture – Provides more specific identification and socialization. Include nationalities, religions, racial groups and geographic regions. c. Social Class – Homogeneous and enduring divisions in a society which are hierarchically ordered. Members share similar tastes and behaviour. 2. Social Factors a. Reference Groups – Have direct or indirect influence on person’s attitude and behaviour. Primary groups: regular interaction, e.g. family, friends, neighbours. Secondary groups: religious, professional, trade union groups. Aspirational Groups: ones that a person hopes to join. Dissociative groups: whose values or behaviour and individual rejects. b. Family – Family of orientation: parents and siblings. Acquires orientation towards religion, politics and economics, sense of personal ambition, self worth and love. Family of procreation: spouse and children. More direct influence on buying behaviour. c. Roles and Status – Role consists of activities a person is expected to perform. Each role carries a status. Marketers must be aware of the status symbol of each product. Chapter 6 – Analyzing Consumer Markets 3. Personal Factors a. Age and Stage in the Life Cycle – Tastes are age related. Markets should also consider critical life events or transitions. b. Occupation and Economic Circumstances – Economic Circumstances like spendable income, savings, assets, debts, borrowing power etc affect consumption patterns. c. Personality and Self Concept – Personality, set of distinguishing characteristics that influence his/her buying behaviour. Consumers match brand personality with their ideal self concept instead of their actual self concept. d. Lifestyle and Values 4. Psychological Factors a. Motivation: Freud’s theory of id, ego and super ego; Maslow’s need hierarchy theory; Herzberg’s two factor model. b. Perception: Process by which we select, organize and interpret information inputs. In marketing, perceptions are more important than reality. c. Learning – Induces changes in behaviour arising from experience. Marketers can build demand by associating the product with positive drives. d. Memory – Short term and long term memory. Build brand knowledge and brand recall as node in memory. Problem Recogniton Information Search Evaluation of Alternatives Purchase Decision Postpurchase Behaviour The Buying Decision Process Problem Recognition – Customer recognises a need triggered by internal or external stimuli. Marketers need to identify circumstances that trigger needs. Information Search – Two levels of involvement – Heightened attention when person becomes more receptive to information about the product. At next level consumer may enter into active information search, looking for reading material, phoning friends etc. Evaluation of Alternatives – Factors influencing a particular choice over the other include attitudes, beliefs and expectancy value. Purchase Decision – Between purchase intention and purchase decision, 2 intervening factors come into play- Attitudes of others and Unanticipated situational factors. Marketers should understand that these factors provoke  risk and should provide information to reduce it. Post purchase Behaviour – Marketers must monitor postpurchase satisfaction, postpurchase actions, and postpurchase product uses. Chapter 6 – Analyzing Consumer Markets Trends Level of customer involvement Involvement Significant Insignificant Differences in Brands High Complex Buying Behaviour Low Variety Seeking Dissonance Reducing Habitual 1. Complex Buying Behaviour: When a customer purchases something for the first time. 2. Variety Seeking: Consumers will keep switching varieties just out of boredom. Eg- Biscuits. Marketer should keep introducing new products and display the product prominently. 3. Habitual: Buying the same thing out of habit and not out of loyalty. Distribution network should be excellent in this case. Maintain consistency in product and advertising. 4. Dissonance Reducing: In case of repeat purchase of same product.

Friday, September 13, 2019

Explain how to study a new language Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Explain how to study a new language - Essay Example most applicable to learning foreign language in consideration that this paper looks at how it can be influenced by psychological factors include the use of Mnemonics to link words or the use of ‘town language’ or the roman room system. To begin, the use of linking technique is widely used by many fast learners. It is applicable when the learner is able to associate images or events in the native language and use it as a reference for another word in the new language. In this way, remembering the word may be easy since it will only be linked with a certain image. The second technique, on the other hand, involves the association of the words with everyday things or images that the learner interacts with often. In effect, the learner is able to use his or her surrounding environment to develop his study by assigning names of certain words in the foreign language to such objects, places or experiences. Consequently, for the mentioned techniques to be effective, the learner m ust identify common words. After the identification of the language of interest, it is important to identify the common words that are used in everyday conversation. These words will act as a checklist for application during speaking. As a result, it is important that the leaner identifies the most appropriate materials and tools for learning. In cases where the leaner is in a country where that language is not often used, it is even important to use a tutor who may have experience and therefore guide the learner mostly in identifying and using common words. It is equally important to appreciate the culture of the natives of the new language to be studied. Language and culture are inseparable and therefore it is important to appreciate the cultural background of the new language of interest. Culture is connected with the pronunciation, non verbal as well as other verbal components of speech. In addition, it is through working with the natives of the language that one gets to understand how

Thursday, September 12, 2019

Implementation and Analysis of The Fiscal Cliff contained in the U.S Essay

Implementation and Analysis of The Fiscal Cliff contained in the U.S. Budget Control Act of 2011 - Essay Example Bush had enacted a string of tax cuts during the period of his administration in the United States. The question that is of concern at present is that which of these tax cuts are to extended and or what period. The provisions of the tax cuts reinforced in the years of 2001 and 2003 had been extended until the end of the year 2012 (Levit, 2011, p. 12). These tax cuts considerably reduced the rates of personal income taxes and eliminated the estate tax. It also had created low rates of tax on dividends. Critics of this tax system, mostly the Democrats, held responsible such reduction in taxes for fuelling the federal budget deficit. It has been found that the increase in â€Å"the top two marginal tax rates† (Huang & Marr, 2012) would not adversely affect many small businesses. If the Bush tax cuts are allowed to be extended then it would keep many affluent individuals’ income out of the taxable income zone. For the small businesses to thrive, they require the boost of hi gher sales. It is not likely that small businesses would expand following a tax cut, thereby creating more employment opportunity by hiring more workers, if they do not find a good market for selling their products. Tax cuts on high income brackets are not effective enough to boost economic growth in the long run. Therefore the argument is strong for the expiry of the Bush Tax cuts. From the extension of these tax cuts, it is estimated that almost $1trillion would get added to the deficits over the ten years from 2013 to 2022. Spending Component of the Act – Across-the-Board spending cuts in the Federal government budget â€Å"The Budget Control Act (BCA) of 2011† (Saturno & Heniff, 2009, p. 17-5) presents the methods in which the across-the-board cuts in spending would be implemented. The across the board cuts on spending would be triggered if the Joint Committee fails to reach the agreement on deficit reduction. The report has two parts. The first part of the report outlines the method to be followed for the FY2013 and the second part caters to the process to be followed in the period of eight years between FY2014 to FY2021. The procedure planned for the span of the next eight years is quite different from that of the year fiscal 2013. The deficit reduction proposal released by President Obama in April 2011 includes the two components; â€Å"spending cuts and tax reform† (Levit, n.d., p. 4). This proposal includes a â€Å"Debt Failsafe† technique. This incorporates a debt-to-GDP ratio which is to be stabilized by the FY2014 and decline after that year. However, if it is not accomplished, â€Å"across the board spending cuts† (Levit, n.d., p. 4) would automatically be triggered and tax expenditures would also be reduced simultaneously. There would be an approximate cut of nine percent annually in non-defense programs as well as another nine percent in defense programs (Kogan, 2011). For FY2013, the funding for each of the di scretionary programs would be reduced proportionally. In this year the president can allow the military personnel funding to be exempted from the sequestration. Depending on this the cuts in spending on other defense programs would increase. In the fiscal years from 2014 to 2021, in each year there would be â€Å"reductions in the statutory cap on total funding for non-defense discretionary programs† (Kogan, 2011). â€Å"Sequestration† – what does it mean? Sequestration is a process in which certain policy goals of the budget are met or enforced through