Tuesday, January 29, 2019
Political Forces in the Glass Ceiling
Despite all of the governmental forces on the side of women who attempt to break through the churl in ceiling, special(a) progress has been made. Numerous studies lament the virtual absence of women in the elite tier of corporate positions chief executive officer, chairman, president, and executive vice president. unjust employment practices strengthen the glass ceiling and hinder the advancement of women in the workplace. These practices include cozy harassment, intimate contrast, and pregnancy discrimination. Although activists fox succeeded in getting stronger laws passed, such as the Civil Rights mo of 1991, true progress eliminating the glass ceiling must be found on private domain initiatives.The Civil Rights puzzle out of 1991 gives women considerable more lick in their defending team against discrimination than did the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibited discrimination against women who successfully filed suit against their emp loyers for raw practices. The Act also states that these women hind end plainly receive back pay and reinstatement in their old jobs. However, the 1991 Civil Rights Act, integrated previous laws while also easing the burden on employees suing to grow job discrimination.Within the new law, a successful litigant can collect monetary damages, as well as, request a control panel trial, sue in conjunction with others who have received similar unfair treatment in the workplace, and request the courts to judge the case ascendentd on the reasonable woman standard as opposed to the reasonable man. The 1991 Act also places the burden of proof on the employer, rather than the employee. Indeed, the Civil Rights Act of 1991 and other recent court endings have given women new clout in the workplace (Morris 61).An cause of this clout is the intense publicity environ the Anita Hill v. Clargonnce Thomas hearing. Hill, a black law professor at the University of Oklahoma, electrified the nat ion when she charged that Cl bence Thomas, then a Supreme Court nominee, had sexually harassed her when she worked for him in the early 1980s. Hill testified before the all- male Senate Judiciary mission about her discomfort when Thomas insisted on describing pornographic movies and made sexual advances.An all-white and all-male Senate sought to discredit Hill, some of who accused her of lying or beingness delusional, hardly her testimony elicited nationwide support. The Senate con faithfuled Thomas natural processs were inappropriate, scarcely Hills testimony was almost entirely disregarded. The hearing anger women, especially those who had suffered similar experiences of sexual harassment in the workplace, and it also authorize many others to come forward with similar allegations. The furor that ensued was just the force out need to pass the Civil Rights Act of 1991 (Stith 187).In recent litigation, women have begun testing the extent of their employment rights beyond the rights guaranteed to them in the Civil Rights Acts. An example of this is a group of eight women employees of the Stroh Brewery Company in Detroit. These women charged that their employer had created a working environment that was hostile to women.As part of their allegation, they pointed to sexually disgusting commercials that Strohs aired featuring the Swedish bikini team, scantily clad early women with large breasts. The Stroh plaintiffs contended that the ads were proof that the company sanctions sexism. The company has defended its ads as simple amusement protected by the First Amendments guarantee of free talking to (Vilanch 7). The plaintiffs in the Stroh case won their lawsuit and created a landmark decision for challenges of this type, particularly due to the position the courts must now decide based on the reasonable woman.Although the presence of strong laws is powerful ammunition to compete to eliminate discrimination in the workplace, litigation is not the most in effect(p) solution to the problem. Women who experience workplace discrimination argon often indisposed(p) to file official complaints for a variety of reasons including feelings of inadequacy, fear of reprisal, and fear of being labeled troublemakers. Some women also fear retaliation from their employers as well.In regard to the latter, other women simply do not have the currency to carry out a lawsuit that may take historic period to settle or reach court. In sexual harassment lawsuits, the aspect of going to trial is enough to scare off many women, particularly once they realize how vulnerable their credibility is in legal matters concerning sexual activity. Many labor experts believe women are held back from jobs because of subtle sexual harassment. Only the concerted efforts of enlightened companies, not litigation, can eradicate this hammer of injustice (Morrison 15).One enlightened company, Du Pont, has made efforts to help women managers overcome the glass ceiling. Du Pont has established a stave position to focus on advancing the careers of promising women and minorities. If a division is looking for the manager of affirmative action and upward mobility then Du Pont is the example to follow (Gallagher 88). Such a staff position is needed to provide support, counseling, and advocacy for women who find their career advancement has stalled due to subtle discrimination.Despite the efforts of some companies, gender diversity is unagitated sorely lacking in Corporate America. A recent watch revealed that of Americas 500 largest companies, women held unless 10 per centum of the draw executive positions. For all the bravado of the past decade, women in most organizations are not much further along. The glass ceiling has not bust (Himelstein 64).Although some companies are diversifying their executive workforces, most companies prefer to initiate these diversity efforts on their own, rather than being forced into it by legislative quotas or af firmative action. For example, Coopers and Lybrand, whose all-male corporate management committee was confronted by its female employees defy socio-economic class, regarding the absence of women in management, preferred to resolve the situation themselves. At issue, was the fact that women only accounted for 8 percent of the firms 1,300 partners and only 3 percent of the firms 70 regional managers.The confrontation which occurred during a management clashing where it was revealed that gender myths about womens performance as managers still persisted.For instance, the male partners assumed that the women were reluctant to engage in business travel and loose business gatherings. As a result of the confrontation, Coopers and Lybrand initiated programs to address diversity issues. These programs include mentoring and formal training. Coopers and Lybrand proclaimed that 30 percent of their new partners by the year 2000 would be women, up from 17 percent in 1999 (Glover 16).Eliminatin g the glass ceiling requires zealous planning efforts by corporations that are committed to diversity. The first clapperclaw involves reach goals. A few companies are achieving success in the engagement to get women into the executive suit. They have backed sound strategies with effort, money, and long bourne commitment (Weiss 191). Various companies base their goals on census data, desiring their workforce to polish the gender demographics of the surround region, while other companies eschew quotas and internal goals, entirely seek the same results, increased diversity.Diversity goals can help but women into the pipeline through the hiring process. The presence of women in senior positions tends to attract women who take to similar aspirations. Once employed, women must receive the training that will part with them to move into the corporate ranks. For example, Colgate-Palmolive favors fast tracking its employees through cross training. skip over training exposes the emplo yee to a variety of functions within the organization the broad base of knowledge acquired is critical to success as a future manager.The efforts that corporations are putting into diversifying their workforces is bearing fruit. An example is J.C. Pennys, which initiated a drive in 1988 to ask 1,000 management positions (created by the relocation of company headquarters) with qualified women. After setting numerical goals and establishing formal networking and mentoring programs. Pennys was able to increase its percentage of senior managers who are women from less than 12 percent in 1990 to more than 35 percent by 1997 (WIBC 103).The glass ceiling that prevents women from advancing to top positions will only be shattered by the combined efforts of policy-making activists and the private sector. steady legislation provides women with the power they need to litigate unfair employment practices. insular sector initiatives help create a climate that is supportive for women to moder nise their skills and make it to the top.Women have made key victories, both in the political arena and in Corporate America. Thousands of women managers are in the pipeline and on the right track to assume their rightful places in the ranks of corporate executives. If incumbent efforts bear fruit, the glass ceiling will no longer be a limiting factor for women of the 21st century.